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How to prepare for English  ( Narration / Direct and Indirect Speech ) ?

Narration

How to prepare for English  ( Narration/Direct and Indirect Speech ) ?

How to prepare for English ( Narration/Direct and Indirect Speech ) ?

This is a very important topic in SSC CGL Tier 2 Examination.With practice a student can

acquire 100% accuracy in this section.

How to attempt this section?

Firstly we need to understand three things.

What is direct speech?

What is indirect speech?

There two ways to convey a message of a person.
Direct speech
Indirect speech

In direct speech the original words of person are narrated (no change is made) and are enclosed in quotation mark.
While in indirect speech some changes are made in original words of the person because these words have been already said in past so the tense will change accordingly and pronoun may also be changed accordingly.

English Questions Preparation
Reporting verb:

The verb used in the first part of sentence (i.e. he said, she said, he says, they said, she says,) before the statement of a person in sentence is called reporting verb.

Next we need to understand how tenses and pronouns are changed while changing from direct to indirect speech.

Pronouns

If the first person pronoun is used in the reported speech it will be changed according to the speaker. I and we are first person pronouns.We will be changed to they.

eg: He says,”I am a government employee.”

He says that he is a government employee.

He says,”We work in this bank.”

He says that they work in that bank.

If second person pronoun is used in the reported speech it will be changed according to the listener.(You is a second person pronoun)

He says to me,”You are an intelliegnt boy.”

He says to me that I am an intelligent boy.

If there is no listener in the sentence use he.

He says that he is an intelligent boy.

If third person pronoun is used in the reported speech there will be no change in pronoun.Third person pronouns are he, she , it and they.

He said to them,”He is a peon in PNB.”

He said to them that he as a peon in PNB.

How to prepare for English ( Narration/Direct and Indirect Speech ) ? :ROLE OF TENSES

A thorough knowledge of tenses is very important.

Step 1 look for the speaker,listener and reporting verb.

Rajiv said to Ranjan,”I need to go now.”

Rajiv is the speaker, Ranjan the listener and said is the reporting verb.Reporting verb is crucial.The reporting verb will be in present(says,calls,advises,requests),past(said ,told,asked,announced) or future tenses(will say,shall say).

Next look for the reported speech which will be in the  inverted commas.

If the reported speech is in present tense or future tense then the tense of the reported speech does not change.

If the reporting verb is in past tense and the reported speech is a habitual action,historical fact,universal truth or Idiom or phrases then also the tense of the reported speech will not change.

Eg 1) Anil says,” Rajiv is my best friend.” Says is the reporting verb which is in present tense so the tense of the reporting speech will not change.The indirect sentence will be-Anil says that Rajiv is my best friend.

2) Anil said,”Mahatama Gandhi was assassinated.”

The reporting verb is in past tense and the reported speech is a historical fact so the tense of the reported speech will not change.

If reporting verb is in past tense and the reported speech is not an idiom/historical fact/universal truth/habitual action then the tenses changes as given below.

1) Simple present ( V(1st form)/do/does) changes to simple past tense(V(2nd form)/did); Simple past (V(2nd form)/did) changes to past perfect(had/V(3rd form));And past perfect (had/(V3rd form)) there will be no change.

2) Present continuous (is/am/are + Verb(ing)) changes to past continuous (was/were + verb(ing)).Past continuous changes to past perfect continuous(had been).And there will be no change in past perfect continuous.

3) Present perfect(has/have+ v(3rd form)) changes to past perfect.There will be no change in Past Perfect.

Only after learning how tenses will be changed you should proceed.

Other changes

Shall/will :  should/would.

May :   might.

Can : could.

Today :  That day

Tonight: That night

These : Those

Tomorrow: The next day

Last : The previous

Here : There

This : That

Yesterday : The previous day/The day before

Ago : Before

Next step

After mastering change of tenses we need to master the connecting words.In simple sentences that are declarative sentences we mostly use the connecting word that.The connecting word is used as we remove the inverted commas.

He said,”Rajiv is waiting for the bus.”

He said that Rajiv was waiting for the bus.

Interrogative sentences

Firstly change the reporting verb to asked,questioned,enquired,interrogated etc.

In interrogative sentences if the answer to the question is only yes or no then connecting word if/whether is used.Such interrogatives sentences begin with a helping verb.(is,am,are,as,ere,has,have,had,will,shall etc)

Eg: Are you going home ? Is it raining ? Had they paid their bill ?

He said to me,”Do you know the way?”

He asked me if I knew the way.

For other interrogative sentences where words such as where,how,when,what etc are used such words themselves act as the connecting words.Make sure that the connecting word is not followed by the helping verb but is followed by the subject.

Eg: Rajiv said,”Where is the school?”

Rajiv asked where the school was. (Note: Connecting verb where is used followed by the subject (the school))

Do not use the question mark at the end of the indirect sentence.

Imperative sentences

In imperative sentences the following points are to be kept in mind while changing to indirect speech.

1) Reporting verb is changed to ordered/requested/forbade/suggested.When using forbade do not use not again in the sentence.

2) Conjunction to is used as the connecting word.

3) First form of the verb will be used after to.

Eg The Captain said to the soldiers ,”March ahead.”

The Captain commanded the soldiers to march ahead.

English Questions Preparation
Exclamatory sentences

For changing exclamatory sentences of direct speech to indirect speech-

1) Use the conjunction that

2) Change tense and Pronoun accordingly.

3) Important changes

Said + Alas changes to exclaimed with sorrow

Said + Hurray changes to exclaimed with joy

Said +Fi/Ugh changes to exclaimed with despise/disgust

Said+ Wow changes to exclaimed with joy

Said + Oh changes to exclaimed with surprise/regret.

Eg: She said,”Hurray! Rahul has cleared the exam.”

She exclaimed with joy that Rahul had cleared the exam.

Optative Sentences

For changing optative sentences of direct speech to indirect speech-

1) Change the reporting verb to wished or prayed.

2) Use the conjunction that.

She said,”May,God pardon him.”

She prayed that God might pardon him.

How to prepare for English ( Narration/Direct and Indirect Speech ) ?

 

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