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Transportation-inside-organisms theory Biology-day-4 Target-ssc-cgl-2018

Transportation-inside-organisms theory Biology-day-4 Target-ssc-cgl-2018

Transportation-inside-organisms theory Biology-day-4 Target-ssc-cgl-2018

TRANSPORTATION IN PLANTS AND ORGANISMS

All organisms need a transport system through which, food, water and oxygen are carried to different parts of the body and harmful waste materials are carried away from the body. In most of the organisms, blood transports the food, water and oxygen to different parts of the body. It also transports the waste materials made in the body.

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Main parts of human circulatory system are heart, blood vessels (veins, arteries, capillaries) and blood.

Blood

Blood is a red coloured liquid which circulates in our body. It consists of four important components. They are plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets.  Thus, blood is a liquid called plasma in which red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets float.

Plasma

It is the liquid part of the blood. It contains digested food and waste product like carbon dioxide and urea.

Red Blood Cells (RBCs)

RBCs carry oxygen from the lungs to all the parts of the body. Haemoglobin present in the red blood cells gives red colour to the blood.

White Blood Cells (WBCs)

The WBCs fight infection and protect us from diseases.

Platelets

Platelets help in the clotting of blood in a cut or wound.

FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD

  • It carries digested food to different parts of the body.
  • It carries water to different parts of the body.
  • It carries oxygen from lungs to different parts of the body.
  • It carries waste product (carbon dioxide) from body cells to lungs for breathing out.
  • Blood carries waste product (urea) from the liver to the kidneys for excretion.
  • It protects the body from diseases.

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HEART

  • Heart pumps blood to all the parts of the body. The heart is hollow inside.
  • Heart has four compartments called chambers. The upper two chambers of heart are called atria and the lower two chambers are called venrtricles.
  • The heart is not a single pump, but it is a double pump. The left side and the right side of the heart act as two separate pumps.
  • The left side of the heart has oxygen rich blood and the right side of the heart has carbon dioxide blood.

Blood Vessels

The tubes present in the body which carries the blood throughout the body are called blood vessels. There are three types of  blood vessels…

Arteries : Blood vessels which carry blood from the heart to other parts of the body are called arteries. Arteries carry oxygenated blood.

Exception : Pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the heart.

Veins : Blood vessels which carry blood from all the parts of the body back to the lungs are called veins. Veins carry deoxygenated blood.

Exception : Pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood from all the parts of the body back to the heart.

Capillaries : These are extremely thin blood vessels which joins arteries to veins. Also, the exchange of substances like food, carbon dioxide, oxygen etc. between the blood and the body cells takes place through capillaries.

HEARTBEATS

  • One complete contraction and relaxation of the heart is called a heartbeat.
  • The average heartbeat of an adult person (also called heart rate) while resting is 72 to 80 per minute.
  • When a person does physical exercise, his heartbeat increases.
  • Heartbeats can be measured by stethoscope.

PULSE

The expansion of an artery each time the blood is forced into it is called a pulse. Pulse rate is equal to the number of heartbeats.

EXCRETION IN ANIMALS

The removal of waste materials produced in the cells of the living organisms is called excretion. Various waste products are : Carbon dioxide, Urea and Sweat.

Lungs : Removes carbon dioxide.

Kidney : Removes urea.

Excretory system in humans

The excretory system of the body consists of following organs…

Kidney : Kidneys filters the blood and removes urea. There are two kidneys in the body each of which contains thousands of tiny filters called nephrons.

Ureter : Ureters are tubes which carries urine formed in the kidney to the gall bladder.

Gall bladder : Urine is stored in the gall bladder for some time and is passed out of the body at a regular interval of time.

Urethra : The opening through which the urine is passed out is called urethra.

Transportation-inside
TRANSPORT IN PLANTS

The transport system in plants consists of long tubes which carries water from roots to leaves and food from leaves to different parts of the plant.

Xylem carries water and minerals from the roots upwards through the stem and branches up to the leaves.

Phloem carries food from the leaves of the plant to different parts of the plant.

 

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