SSC Economic Study Material – National Income
SSC Economic Study Material – National Income
The national income and product accounts (NIPAs) produced by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) have become a mainstay of modern macroeconomic analysis for the U.S. economy. In fact, the Commerce Department in 2000 named the NIPAs, and their marquee measure, gross domestic product (GDP), “its achievement of the century.” Because these accounts provide a detailed picture of economic activity at a given time, as well as a consistently defined series of measures over time, they are indispensable to researchers, forecasters, government officials, academics, and investors who use them for a wide array of academic, public policy, and other purposes.
Given the importance of the NIPAs, users often seek a detailed explanation of the concepts that underlie them. The goal of this methodology paper is to present the conceptual basis and framework of the U.S. NIPAs. Specifically, the paper demonstrates how the seven accounts that summarize the NIPAs are derived from conventional accounting statements—in particular, the balance sheet, income statements, and the statement of cash flow familiar to business accounting.
National income is an uncertain term which is used interchangeably with national dividend, national output and national expenditure. On this basis, national income has been defined in a number of ways. In common parlance, national income means the total value of goods and services produced annually in a country.
In other words, the total amount of income accruing to a country from economic activities in a year’s time is known as national income. It includes payments made to all resources in the form of wages, interest, rent and profits.
The definitions of national income can be grouped into two classes: One, the traditional definitions advanced by Marshall, Pigou and Fisher; and two, modern definitions.
According to Marshall: “The labour and capital of a country acting on its natural resources produce annually a certain net aggregate of commodities, material and immaterial including services of all kinds. This is the true net annual income or revenue of the country or national dividend.” In this definition, the word ‘net’ refers to deductions from the gross national income in respect of depreciation and wearing out of machines. And to this, must be added income from abroad.
Though the definition advanced by Marshall is simple and comprehensive, yet it suffers from a number of limitations. First, in the present day world, so varied and numerous are the goods and services produced that it is very difficult to have a correct estimation of them.
Consequently, the national income cannot be calculated correctly. Second, there always exists the fear of the mistake of double counting, and hence the national income cannot be correctly estimated. Double counting means that a particular commodity or service like raw material or labour, etc. might get included in the national income twice or more than twice.
The Pigouvian Definition:
A.C. Pigou has in his definition of national income included that income which can be measured in terms of money.
In the words of Pigou, “National income is that part of objective income of the community, including of course income derived from abroad which can be measured in money.”
This definition is better than the Marshallian definition. It has proved to be more practical also. While calculating the national income now-a- days, estimates are prepared in accordance with the two criteria laid down in this definition.
First, avoiding double counting, the goods and services which can be measured in money are included in national income. Second, income received on account of investment in foreign countries is included in national income.
The Pigouvian definition is precise, simple and practical but it is not free from criticism. First, in the light of the definition put forth by Pigou, we have to unnecessarily differentiate between commodities which can and which cannot be exchanged for money.
But, in actuality, there is no difference in the fundamental forms of such commodities, no matter they can be exchanged for money. Second, according to this definition when only such commodities as can be exchanged for money are included in estimation of national income, the national income cannot be correctly measured.
According to Pigou, a woman’s services as a nurse would be included in national income but excluded when she worked in the home to look after her children because she did not receive any salary for it. Similarly, Pigou is of the view that if a man marries his lady secretary, the national income diminishes as he has no longer to pay for her services.
Fisher adopted ‘consumption’ as the criterion of national income whereas Marshall and Pigou regarded it to be production.
According to Fisher, “The National dividend or income consists solely of services as received by ultimate consumers, whether from their material or from the human environments. Thus, a piano, or an overcoat made for me this year is not a part of this year’s income, but an addition to the capital. Only the services rendered to me during this year by these things are income.”
Fisher’s definition is considered to be better than that of Marshall or Pigou, because Fisher’s definition provides an adequate concept of economic welfare which is dependent on consumption and consumption represents our standard of living.
But from the practical point of view, this definition is less useful, because there are certain difficulties in measuring the goods and services in terms of money. First, it is more difficult to estimate the money value of net consumption than that of net production.
In one country there are several individuals who consume a particular good and that too at different places and, therefore, it is very difficult to estimate their total consumption in terms of money. Second, certain consumption goods are durable and last for many years.
If we consider the example of piano or overcoat, as given by Fisher, only the services rendered for use during one year by them will be included in income. If an overcoat costs Rs. 100 and lasts for ten years, Fisher will take into account only Rs. 100 as national income during one year, whereas Marshall and Pigou will include Rs. 100 in the national income for the year, when it is made.
From the modern point of view, Simon Kuznets has defined national income as “the net output of commodities and services flowing during the year from the country’s productive system in the hands of the ultimate consumers.”
On the other hand, in one of the reports of United Nations, national income has been defined on the basis of the systems of estimating national income, as net national product, as addition to the shares of different factors, and as net national expenditure in a country in a year’s time. In practice, while estimating national income, any of these three definitions may be adopted, because the same national income would be derived, if different items were correctly included in the estimate.
Aims and Objectives
- a) i) To provide or undertake activities aimed to achieve population stabilisation, at a level consistent with the needs of sustainable economic growth, social development and environment protection, by 2045.
- ii) To promote and support schemes, programmes, projects and initiatives for meeting the unmet needs for contraception and reproductive and child health care.
iii) To promote and support innovative ideas in the Government, private and voluntary sector with a view to achieve the objectives of the National Population Policy 2000.
- iv) To facilitate the development of a vigorous people’s movement in favour of the national effort for population stabilisation.
- v) To provide a window for canalizing contributions from individuals, trade organizations and other within the country and outside, in furtherance of the national cause of population stabilisation.
- b) There shall be no discrimination on the ground of religion, community, caste or class.
Concepts of national income
(1) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) : Gross domestic product is the money value of all final goods and services produced in the domestic territory of a country during an accounting year. The concept of domestic territory has a special meaning in national income accounting. Domestic territory is defined to include the following:
(i) Territory lying within the political frontiers, including territorial waters of the country.
(ii) Ships and aircrafts operated by the residents of the country between two or more countries.
(iii) Fishing vessels, oil and natural gas rigs, and floating platforms operated by the residents of the country in the international waters or engaged in extraction in areas in which the country has exclusive rights of exploitation.
(iv) Embassies, consulates and military establishments of the country located abroad.
(2) GDP at Constant Prices and at Current Prices : GDP can be estimated at current prices and at constant prices. If the domestic product is estimated on the basis of the prevailing prices it is called gross domestic product at current prices. Thus, when we say that GDP of India at current prices in 2010-11 is 72,66,967 crores, we are measuring GDP on the basis of the prices prevailing in 2010-11. On the other hand, if GDP is measured on the basis of some fixed prices, that is prices prevailing at a point of time or in some base year
it is known as GDP at constant prices or real gross domestic product. Thus when we say that GDP in 2010-11 is 49,37,006 crores at 2004-05 prices, we are measuring GDP on the basis of the prices prevailing in 2004-05.
(3) GDP at Factor Cost and GDP at Market Price : The contribution of each producing unit to the current flow of goods and services is known as the net value added. GDP at factor cost is estimated as the sum of net value added by the different producing units and the consumption of fixed capital. Since the net value added gets distributed as income to the owners of factors of production, we can also estimate GDP as the sum of domestic factor incomes and consumption of fixed capital. Conceptually, the value of GDP whether estimated at market price or factor cost must be identical. This is because the final value of goods and services (i.e. market price) must be equal to the cost involved in their production (factor cost). However, the market value of goods and services is not the same as the earnings of the factors of production. GDP at market price includes indirect taxes and excludes the subsidies given by the government. Therefore, in order to arrive at GDP at factor income we must subtract indirect taxes from and add subsidies to GDP at market price.
In brief GDPFC = GDPMP – IT + S
Where IT = Indirect Taxes
S = Subsidies
(4) Gross National Product (GNP) : It has already been seen that whatever is produced within the domestic territory of a country in a year is its gross domestic product. It, however, includes, the contribution made by non-resident producers by way of wages, rent, interest and profits. The non-residents work in the domestic territory of some other country and earn factor incomes. For example, Indian residents go abroad to work. Indian banks are functioning abroad. Indians own property in foreign countries. The income of all these people is the factor income earned from abroad. In other words, it is factor income earned from abroad by the residents of India by rendering factor services abroad. Similarly, factor services are rendered by non- residents within the domestic territory of India. Net factor
income from abroad is the difference between the income received from abroad for rendering factor services and the income paid for the factor services rendered by non-residents in the domestic territory of a country. Gross national product is defined as the sum of the gross domestic product and net factor incomes from abroad. Thus in order to estimate the gross national product of India we have to add net factor income from abroad i.e., income earned by Indian residents abroad minus income earned by non-residents in India to form the gross domestic product of India.
In brief GNP = GDP + NFIA (where NFIA is the net factor income from abroad)
(5) Net Domestic Product : While calculating GDP no provision is made for depreciation allowance (also called capital consumption allowance). In such a situation gross domestic product will not reveal complete flow of goods and services through various sectors. It is a matter of common knowledge that capital goods like machines, equipment, tools, buildings, tractors etc., get depreciated during the process of production. After some time these capital goods need replacement. A part of capital is therefore, set aside in the form of depreciation allowance. When depreciation allowance is subtracted from gross domestic product we get net domestic product.
NDP = GDP – depreciation
(6) Net National Product (NNP) : It can be derived by subtracting depreciation allowance from GNP. It can also be found out by adding the net factor income from abroad to the net domestic product. If the net factor income from abroad is positive i.e., the inflow of factor income from abroad is more than the outflow, NNP will be more than NDP; conversely, if net factor income from abroad is negative, NNP will be less than NDP and it would be equal to NDP in case the net factor income from abroad is zero.
Symbolically, NNP = NDP + NFIA
(7) NNP at factor cost or National Income : NNP at factor cost is the volume of commodities and services turned out during an accounting year, counted without duplication. It can also be defined as the net value added at factor cost (by the residents) in an economy during an accounting year. In terms of income earned by the factors of production, NNP at factor cost or national income is defined as the sum of domestic factor incomes and net factor income from abroad. If NNP figure is available at market prices we will subtract indirect taxes and add subsidies to the figure to get NNP at factor cost or national income of the economy.
Symbolically, NNP at FC = National Income = FID + NFIA
where FID is factor income earned in the domestic territory of a country and NFIA is the net factor income from abroad. There are two more concepts: Personal Income and Personal Disposal Income. Personal income is the sum of all incomes actually received by individuals during a given year. In order to estimate it we subtract from national income the sum total of social security contribution and corporate income taxes and undistributed corporate profits and add personal payments which are incomes received but not currently earned. After the deduction of personal taxes from personal income of the individuals what is left is called personal disposable income which is equal to consumption plus saving.
The following statements mathematically summarise the various concepts discussed above and the relationship among them:
GNP at market price – depreciation = NNP at market price.
GNP at market price – net income from abroad = GDP at market price.
GNP at market price – net indirect taxes = GNP at factor cost.
NNP at market price – net income from abroad = NDP at market price.
NNP at market price – net indirect taxes = NNP at factor cost.
GDP at market price – net indirect taxes = GDP at factor cost.
GNP at factor cost – depreciation = NNP at factor cost.
NDP at market price – net indirect taxes = NDP at factor cost.
GDP at factor cost – depreciation = NDP at factor cost.
(8) Domestic Income: Income generated (or earned) by factors of production within the country from its own resources is called domestic income or domestic product.
Domestic income includes:
(i) Wages and salaries, (ii) rents, including imputed house rents, (iii) interest, (iv) dividends, (v) undistributed corporate profits, including surpluses of public undertakings, (vi) mixed incomes consisting of profits of unincorporated firms, self- employed persons, partnerships, etc., and (vii) direct taxes.
Since domestic income does not include income earned from abroad, it can also be shown as: Domestic Income = National Income-Net income earned from abroad. Thus the difference between domestic income f and national income is the net income earned from abroad. If we add net income from abroad to domestic income, we get national income, i.e., National Income = Domestic Income + Net income earned from abroad.
But the net national income earned from abroad may be positive or negative. If exports exceed import, net income earned from abroad is positive. In this case, national income is greater than domestic income. On the other hand, when imports exceed exports, net income earned from abroad is negative and domestic income is greater than national income.
(9) Private Income: Private income is income obtained by private individuals from any source, productive or otherwise, and the retained income of corporations. It can be arrived at from NNP at Factor Cost by making certain additions and deductions.
The additions include transfer payments such as pensions, unemployment allowances, sickness and other social security benefits, gifts and remittances from abroad, windfall gains from lotteries or from horse racing, and interest on public debt. The deductions include income from government departments as well as surpluses from public undertakings, and employees’ contribution to social security schemes like provident funds, life insurance, etc.
Thus Private Income = National Income (or NNP at Factor Cost) + Transfer Payments + Interest on Public Debt — Social Security — Profits and Surpluses of Public Undertakings.
(10) Personal Income: Personal income is the total income received by the individuals of a country from all sources before payment of direct taxes in one year. Personal income is never equal to the national income, because the former includes the transfer payments whereas they are not included in national income.
Personal income is derived from national income by deducting undistributed corporate profits, profit taxes, and employees’ contributions to social security schemes. These three components are excluded from national income because they do reach individuals.
But business and government transfer payments, and transfer payments from abroad in the form of gifts and remittances, windfall gains, and interest on public debt which are a source of income for individuals are added to national income.
Thus Personal Income = National Income – Undistributed Corporate Profits – Profit Taxes – Social Security Contribution + Transfer Payments + Interest on Public Debt.
Personal income differs from private income in that it is less than the latter because it excludes undistributed corporate profits.
Thus Personal Income = Private Income – Undistributed Corporate Profits – Profit Taxes.
(11) Disposable Income: Disposable income or personal disposable income means the actual income which can be spent on consumption by individuals and families. The whole of the personal income cannot be spent on consumption, because it is the income that accrues before direct taxes have actually been paid. Therefore, in order to obtain disposable income, direct taxes are deducted from personal income. Thus Disposable Income=Personal Income – Direct Taxes.
But the whole of disposable income is not spent on consumption and a part of it is saved. Therefore, disposable income is divided into consumption expenditure and savings. Thus Disposable Income = Consumption Expenditure + Savings.
If disposable income is to be deduced from national income, we deduct indirect taxes plus subsidies, direct taxes on personal and on business, social security payments, undistributed corporate profits or business savings from it and add transfer payments and net income from abroad to it.
Thus Disposable Income = National Income – Business Savings – Indirect Taxes + Subsidies – Direct Taxes on Persons – Direct Taxes on Business – Social Security Payments + Transfer Payments + Net Income from abroad.
(12) Real Income: Real income is national income expressed in terms of a general level of prices of a particular year taken as base. National income is the value of goods and services produced as expressed in terms of money at current prices. But it does not indicate the real state of the economy.
It is possible that the net national product of goods and services this year might have been less than that of the last year, but owing to an increase in prices, NNP might be higher this year. On the contrary, it is also possible that NNP might have increased but the price level might have fallen, as a result national income would appear to be less than that of the last year. In both the situations, the national income does not depict the real state of the country. To rectify such a mistake, the concept of real income has been evolved.
In order to find out the real income of a country, a particular year is taken as the base year when the general price level is neither too high nor too low and the price level for that year is assumed to be 100. Now the general level of prices of the given year for which the national income (real) is to be determined is assessed in accordance with the prices of the base year. For this purpose the following formula is employed.
Real NNP = NNP for the Current Year x Base Year Index (=100) / Current Year Index
Suppose 1990-91 is the base year and the national income for 1999-2000 is Rs. 20,000 crores and the index number for this year is 250. Hence, Real National Income for 1999-2000 will be = 20000 x 100/250 = Rs. 8000 crores. This is also known as national income at constant prices.
(13) Per Capita Income: The average income of the people of a country in a particular year is called Per Capita Income for that year. This concept also refers to the measurement of income at current prices and at constant prices. For instance, in order to find out the per capita income for 2001, at current prices, the national income of a country is divided by the population of the country in that year.
Similarly, for the purpose of arriving at the Real Per Capita Income, this very formula is used.
This concept enables us to know the average income and the standard of living of the people. But it is not very reliable, because in every country due to unequal distribution of national income, a major portion of it goes to the richer sections of the society and thus income received by the common man is lower than the per capita income.
The factors that determine national income
Factors determining national income can be discussed as follows-
Ø Quality and quantity of factors of production: the quality and quantity of land, the climate, the rainfall, etc., determine the quantity and quality of agricultural production. This determines the size of national income. The quantity of labour has double influence since labour is both a factor of production as well as the consumer of what is produced. The quality of labour depends upon intelligence, training, which in turn decides the volume of industrial productivity. This will have decisive influence on output. Likewise, the quantity and quality of entrepreneurial ability is also a main element in the determination of national income.
Ø State of technical know-how: the extent of technical know-how and technology in production determine the capital formation in the country. A country with abundant resources will be dormant without any determination if the resources are not scientifically exploited. Natural resources combined with advanced technology will go a long way in increasing the size of national income.
Ø Political stability: the key to increase the national income rests with important factors like capital formation, natural resources, technical know-how and political stability.
DIFFERENT METHODS OF MEASURING NATIONAL INCOME
Production and sale of goods and services and the generation of income which accompanies these activities are processes that go on continuously. Production gives rise to income; income gives rise to demand for goods and services; and demand in turn gives rises to expenditure; again expenditure leads to further production. The circular flow of production, income expenditure represents three related phases, namely, production, distribution and disposition. These three phases enable us to look at national income in three ways – as a flow of goods and services, as a flow of incomes or as a flow of expenditure on goods and services. To measure it at each phase, we require different data and methods. If we want to measure it at the phase of production, we have to find out the sum of net values added by all the producing enterprises of the country. If we want to measure it at the phase of income distributed, we have to find out the total income generated in the production of goods and services. Finally, if we want to measure it at the phase of disposition, we have to know the sum of expenditures of the three spending units in the economy, namely, government, consumer households, and producing enterprises.
Corresponding to the three phases, there are three methods of measuring national income. They are:
(i) Product Method
(ii) Income Method;
(iii) Expenditure Method.
(iv) Value Added Method (alternatively known as Product Method);
(i) Product method : This method is popular in U.S.A. and is called as Total Product method or Goods Flow Method. In India, It is known as inventory or Product method. In this method, the economy is classified in to three transaction sector like industrial, services and foreign transaction sector where international payments are considered.
We calculate the money value of all final goods and services produced in an economy during a year. The money value of these goods and services is calculated at market price. The sum-total is called the GDP at market price.
(ii) Income Method : Different factors of production pool their services for carrying out production activities. These factors of production, in return, are paid for their services in the form of factor incomes. Thus labour gets wages, land gets rent, capital gets interest and entrepreneur gets profits. In other words, whatever is produced by a producing unit is distributed among the factors of production for their services and aggregate of factor incomes of all the factors of production of all the producing units form the subject matter of calculation of national income by income method.
Only incomes earned by owners of primary factors of production are included in national income. Transfer incomes are excluded from national income. Thus, while wages of labourers will be included, pensions of retired workers will be excluded from national income. Labour income includes, apart from wages and salaries, bonus, commission, employers’ contribution to provident fund and compensations in kind. Non-labour income includes dividends, undistributed profits of corporations before taxes, interest, rent, royalties and profits of unincorporated enterprises and of government enterprises.
However, normally, it is difficult to separate labour income from capital income because in many instances people provide both labour and capital services. Such is the case with self- employed people like lawyers, engineers, traders, proprietors etc. In economies where subsistence production and small commodity production is dominant most of the incomes of people would be of mixed type. In sectors such as agriculture, trade, transport etc. in underdeveloped countries (including India), it is difficult to differentiate between labour element and capital element of incomes of the people. In order to overcome this difficulty a new category of incomes, called mixed income is introduced which includes all those incomes which are difficult to separate.
(iii) Expenditure Method: The various sectors – household sector, business sector and government sector either spend their incomes on consumer goods and services or save a part of their incomes or we can say that they spend a part of their incomes on non-consumption goods (or capital goods). Total expenditure in an economy consists of expenditure on financial assets, on goods produced in preceding periods, on raw materials and intermediate goods and services and on final goods and services produced in the current period. Expenditure on financial assets which are produced and owned within the country is excluded but expenditure on financial assets of foreign countries is included in national expenditure.
However, only the net expenditure i.e., the difference between expenditure on foreign financial assets by residents and expenditure on the country’s financial assets by non-residents or foreigners is incorporated. This difference is also called net foreign investment. Goods produced in preceding years are also excluded from national income because they have been accounted for in the national incomes of the periods when they were produced. Similarly, expenditure on raw materials and intermediate goods and services are excluded because otherwise there would be double counting of some of the items included in the national income. Government expenditure on pensions, scholarships, unemployment allowance etc. should be excluded because these are transfer payments. Thus, only expenditure on final goods and services produced in the period for which national income is to be measured and net foreign investment are included in the expenditure method of calculating national income.
Gross national expenditure = Consumption expenditure + net domestic investment + net foreign investment + replacement expenditure (i.e., expenditure on replacement investment).
Net national expenditure = Consumption expenditure + net domestic investment + net foreign investment.
Net domestic expenditure = Consumption expenditure + net domestic investment
(iv) Value Added Method: Value added method measures the contribution of each producing enterprise in the domestic territory of the country. This method involves the following steps:
(a) Identifying the producing enterprise and classifying them into industrial sectors according to their activities.
(b) Estimating net value added by each producing enterprise as well as each industrial sector and adding up the net value added by all the sectors.
All the producing enterprises are broadly classified into three main sectors namely: (1) Primary sector which includes agriculture and allied activities; (2) Secondary sector which includes manufacturing units and (3) Tertiary sector which include services like banking, insurance, transport and communications, trade and professions. These sectors are further divided into sub-sectors and each sub-sector is further divided into commodity group or service-group.
For calculating the net product of the industrial sector we need to know about gross output of the sector, the raw materials and intermediate goods and services used by the sector and the amount of depreciation. For an individual unit, we subtract from the value of its gross output, the value of the raw material and intermediate goods and services used by it and, from this, we subtract the amount of depreciation to get net product or value added by each unit. Adding value-added by all the units in one sub-sector, we get value-added by the sub-sector. Again adding value-added or net products of all the sub-sectors of a sector we get value-added or net product of that sector. For the economy as a whole, we add net products contributed by each sector to get Net Domestic Product. If the information regarding the final output and intermediate goods is available in terms of market prices we can easily convert it in terms of factor costs by subtracting (or adding as the case may be) net indirect taxes to it. If we add or subtract net income from abroad we get Net National Product at factor cost which is nothing but National Income.
Care should be taken to include the value of the following items :
(a) Own account production of fixed assets by government, enterprises and households.
(b) Production for self-consumption.
(c) Imputed rent of owner occupied houses.
(1) Presence of a large non-monetized sector
(2) Lack of appropriate and reliable data
(3) Problem of double counting
(4) Problem of transfer payments
(5) Difficulties in classification of working population
(6) Unreported illegal income
DIFFICULTIES IN CALCULATION OF NATIONAL INCOME
The measurement of national income is beset with difficulties. In under developed countries these difficulties are more prominent. The difficulties in calculation of national income can be discussed as follows:
- Conceptual difficulties: there has been a difference of opinion regarding the term ‘nation’ in the concept of national income. It has to define exactly, whether it is geographical entity of the country or the nationals including those residing abroad. Since national income constitutes a quantitative measure of economics activity rather than verbal description. Since everything has to be equated to the money value, services produced in economy for love of humanity, affection and philosophy could not be taken into consideration in calculating national income.
- Overlapping of occupations: in backward economies there is an overlapping of occupation in rural sector which makes it difficult to know the income by origin. A worker in a peak season works in a farm, drives a country cart in off season. Takes up unskilled work, etc. similarly, the village money lender combines his profession with the cultivating of his farm.
- Difficulty in value estimation: in backward areas, the cultivators, artisans and cottage industry workers do not have a fair idea of the expenses of their occupation. Hence the net value of their products cannot be estimated precisely.
- Non- monetized sector: barter dealing and non-monetized sector creates the problem of inputting the value of their produce and services and by guess work and approximation.
- Incomplete government records: due to ignorance and illiteracy in backward areas, the data may not be available and if available, may be unreliable. Also, the figures furnished by government officials may not be from reliable sources and data is not current.
- Problems in agricultural sector: in agricultural activities there is a good deal of guess work in data relating to cropwise production and in figures relating to animals and forest products.
- Problems in industrial sector: data relating to output, cost, etc. are available only in big units. The small units do not maintain these figures correctly. The village money lenders and indigenous bankers maintain absolute secret of their and they do not furnish correct information.the Link Below-
For more Topics visit the link below-
Click here :: For Previous topic – Micro vs. Macro
Click here :: For Previous topic – Economic types
Click here :: For Previous topic – Branches of Economy
Click here :: For Previous topic – Economic Theories
Now Get All Notifications And Updates In Your E-mail Account Just Enter Your E-mail Address Below And Verify Your Account To Get More Updates :