SSC CGL Tier 1 Economic Study Material – Goods in economy
SSC CGL Tier 1 Economic Study Material – Goods in economy
In economics, a good is a material that satisfies human wants and provides utility, for example, to a consumer making a purchase while getting an enough-satisfying product. A common distinction is made between ‘goods’ that are tangible property, and services, which are non-physical. A good is a consumable item that is useful to people but scarce in relation to its demand, so that human effort is required to obtain it. In contrast, free goods, such as air, are naturally in abundant supply and need no conscious effort to obtain them.
Commodities may be used as a synonym for economic goods but often refer to marketable raw materials and primary products.
Although in economic theory all goods are considered tangible, in reality certain classes of goods, such as information, only take intangible forms. For example, among other goods an apple is a tangible object, while news belongs to an intangible class of goods and can be perceived only by means of an instrument such as print or television.
Types of Goods – Related to Income:
Inferior goods: goods for which demand decreases as consumer income rises. Thus, it’s “income elasticity” will be negative. Example: Inter-city bus service and inexpensive foods such as bologna, hamburger, and frozen dinners.
Normal goods: goods for which demand increases as consumer income rises. Thus, it’s “income elasticity” will be positive. Most goods are normal goods, hence the name “normal.”
Superior goods: goods that will tend to make up a larger proportion of consumption as income rises. As such, they are an extreme form of normal good. Thus, a superior good’s “income elasticity” will be both positive and greater than 1. A superior good might be a luxury good that is not purchased at all below a certain level of income, such as a luxury car.
Luxury goods: a more colloquial term that is synonymous with “superior good.”
Types of Goods -Related to Price:
Ordinary goods: goods for which quantity demanded increases as the price for the good drops; conversely, quantity demanded decreases as the price for the good increases, ceteris paribus (all other things being equal).
Giffen good: a good that will experience an increase in quantity demanded in response to an increase in price. In order to be a true Giffen good, price must be the only thing that changes to prompt a change in quantity demand. Conspicuous consumption (such as found with Veblen goods) is not a factor. The classic example is of inferior staple foods, whose demand is driven by poverty that makes their purchasers unable to afford superior foodstuffs. As the price of the cheap staple rises, consumers can no longer afford to supplement their diet with superior foods, and must consume more of the staple food.
Veblen goods (aka ostentatious goods): often confused with Giffen goods, Veblen goods are goods for which increased prices will increase quantity demanded. However, this is not because the consumers are forced into buying more of the good due to budgetary constraints (as in Giffen goods). Rather, Veblen goods are high-status goods such as expensive wines, automobiles, watches, or perfumes. The utility of such goods is associated with their ability to denote status. Decreasing their price decreases the quantity demanded because their status-denoting utility becomes compromised.
Types of Goods -Related to Consumption Ability:
Rival goods (aka rivalrous goods): goods whose consumption by one consumer prevents simultaneous consumption by other consumers. for example, food, cars, and clothing.
Nonrival goods: goods that may be consumed by one consumer without preventing simultaneous consumption by others. Most examples of nonrival goods are intangible goods. For example, television and radio are nonrival goods.
Excludable goods: goods or service that enable a seller to prevent non-paying customers from enjoying the benefits of it. Market allocation of such goods is feasible. Examples: public transportation, haircuts, movie theatre, food, clothing, housing, rental accommodations.
Non- excludable goods: goods or service whereby it is impossible to prevent an individual who does not pay for that thing from enjoying the benefits of it. Market allocation of such goods is not feasible. Examples: beautiful scenery, fresh air.
Public goods: goods that is non-excludable as well as non-rival. This means it is not possible to exclude individuals from the good’s consumption. Fresh air may be considered a public good as it is not generally possible to prevent people from breathing it. However, technically speaking such goods should be called pure public goods.
Private goods: goods that is both excludable and rival. Example: bread (eaten by a given person cannot be consumed by another [rival] , and a baker can refuse to sell [excludable].
Club goods: goods that is excludable but non-rivalrous, at least until reaching a point where congestion occurs. Examples of club goods would include private golf courses, cinemas, cable television, access to copyrighted works, and the services provided by social or religious clubs to their members.
Common-pool resource: goods that is non-excludable but rivalrous. Examples of common-pool resources include irrigation systems, fishing grounds, pastures, and forests. A pasture, for instance, allows for a certain amount of grazing to occur without the core resource being harmed. In the case of excessive grazing, however, the pasture may become more prone to erosion and eventually yield less benefit to its users. Thus, the core resource is vulnerable to the problems of congestion, overuse, pollution, and potential destruction unless harvesting or use limits are devised and enforced.
National defense, terrestrial television
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