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Plants-reproduction theory Biology-day-5 Target-ssc-cgl-2018

Plants-reproduction theory Biology-day-5 Target-ssc-cgl-2018

Plants-reproduction theory Biology-day-5 Target-ssc-cgl-2018

REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS 

Reproduction means creation of new things from the existing one. Plants reproduce by special cells called gametes. There are two types of gametes i.e. male gametes and female gametes.

Methods of reproduction

There are two methods by which plants can reproduce…

  • Asexual reproduction
  • Sexual reproduction

 

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

The method in which there is no involvement of gametes for reproduction is called asexual reproduction. In plants using this method, no seed is formed.

Methods of asexual reproduction

Vegetative propagation 

New plants are produced from different parts of the old plants. These parts are…

  • Vegetative propagation by Stems :   Rose, champa, grapes, sugarcane, bananas, bougainvillea, Cactus, heena etc.
  • Vegetative propagation by Roots :  Dahlia, Sweet potatoes etc.
  • Vegetative propagation by Leaves :  Bryophyllum, Begonia, Cacti etc.

Plants-reproduction
Budding 

In this process, a small part of the body of the parent plant grows out (bud) and then detaches to form a new plant. Yeast, a single-celled plant, reproduces by this method.

Fragmentation

When the body of a plant becomes fully mature, it is fragmented into two or more parts. These parts will further grow into full plants. Spirogyra, alga etc. reproduce by fragmentation.

Spore formation

Spores are asexual part of the plant different from the seeds. Ferns, mosses, fungi, Rhizopus (bread mould) etc. reproduce by spore formation.

 

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

  • The method in which there is involvement of gametes for reproduction is called sexual reproduction. In plants using this method, seeds are formed.
  • Generally, flowery plants reproduce by sexual reproduction.
  • Male and female gametes are formed by the flowers. These gametes fertilise to make seeds.

Structure of flower

Following are the parts of a flower

  • Receptacle  :   It is the base of a flower.
  • Sepals  :  Green, leaf-like part in the outermost part of the flower are called sepals.
  • Petals  :  The colourful part of the flower is called the petals of the flower.
    Stamen  :  It is the male reproductive organ of the plant. Swollen top of stamen is called anther which makes the pollen grains. Pollen grains contain the male gametes.
  • Pistil  :  It is the male reproductive organ of the plant. The top part of pistil is called stigma. The swollen part at the bottom of the pistil is called ovary.  The ovary makes ovules which contains female gametes and stores them.

 

POLLINATION

The transfer of the pollen grains from the anther of the stamen to the stigma of a pistil is called pollination. Pollination occurs in two ways…

Self-pollination…Pollination in the same flower.

Cross pollination…Pollination from one flower of a plant to another flower of another similar plant.

Fertilisation

The fusion of male gamete and female gamete is called fertilisation. After fertilisation, zygote is formed.

Formation of fruits and seeds

The ovule present in the ovary after fertilisation grows and becomes a seed.

The ovary of a flower develops and becomes and fruit.

Plants-reproduction
Germination

The process of growing of a seed is called germination.

DISPERSAL OF SEEDS AND FRUITS

  • Dispersal of seeds is necessary for the reproduction of plants.
  • Seeds and fruits are dispersed by wind, water, animals, insects etc.

 

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