Some types of insoluble fiber have bulking action and are not fermented. Chemically, dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans, cellulose, and many other plant components such as resistant starch, resistant dextrins, inulin, lignin, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans, and oligosaccharides.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections do not have symptoms, known as latent tuberculosis. People with latent TB do not spread the disease.
The common cold is a self-limited contagious illness that can be caused by a number of different types of viruses. The common cold is medically referred to as a viral upper respiratory tract infection. Symptoms of the common cold may include cough, sore throat, watery eyes, nasal congestion, runny nose, and sneezing.
Q1924. In plants water is absorbed by the root hairs by a process called:
osmosis is the spontaneous movement of a solvent (water) through a cellular membrane. This is a special kind of diffusion that moves water molecules from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration to create a stable and equal cellular environment.
Q1925. The element which is required by the plant in large quantities:
At least 17 elements are known to be essential nutrients for plants. In relatively large amounts, the soil supplies nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur these are often called the macronutrients.
Q1926. Which one of the following gives energy to our body?
Carbohydrates have four calories per gram. Sugars and starches get digested to produce glucose, which is the form of energy preferred by every cell in your body. They also have the advantage of being converted into energy faster than fats and protein.
Q1927. Which of the following pairs has open type of circulatory system?
Open circulatory systems (evolved in crustaceans, insects, mollusks and other invertebrates) pump blood into a hemocoel with the blood diffusing back to the circulatory system between cells. Blood is pumped by a heart into the body cavities, where tissues are surrounded by the blood.
Q1928. Which of the following animals does not have nervous system?
Protozoan infections are parasitic diseases caused by organisms formerly classified in the Kingdom Protozoa. They include organisms classified in Amoebozoa, Excavata, and Chromalveolata. Examples include Entamoeba histolytica, Plasmodium (some of which cause malaria), and Giardia lamblia.
Q1930. Deposition of uric acid crystals at the joint is the cause of
Gout is a painful condition that occurs when the bodily waste product uric acid is deposited as needle-like crystals in the joints and/or soft tissues. In the joints, these uric acid crystals cause inflammatory arthritis, which in turn leads to intermittent swelling, redness, heat, pain, and stiffness in the joints.
Q1931. Which of the following cytoplasmic organelles are treated as prokaryotic cells within the eukaryotic cells?
The most prominent roles of mitochondria are to produce the energy currency of the cell, ATP (i.e. phosphorylation of ADP), through respiration, and to regulate cellular metabolism. The central set of reactions involved in ATP production are collectively known as the citric acid cycle or the Krebs cycle.
Foods that are rich in nitrogen include meat, fish, potato, milk, eggs, cereals and legumes. Most of the nitrogen in foods are found in proteins as amino acids, although nitrogen can also be present in various forms such as free amino acids, creatine, choline, creatinine, purines, pyrimidines and amino sugars.
Q1933. Which one of the following organs excretes water, fat and various catabolic wastes?
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs that extract waste from blood, balance body fluids, form urine, and aid in other important functions of the body. They reside against the back muscles in the upper abdominal cavity. They sit opposite each other on either side of the spine.
Q1934. Which of the following diseases is caused by the consumption of nitrate contaminated food and water ?
A sort of “blue baby syndrome” can also be caused by methemoglobinemia. It is widely believed to be caused by nitrate contamination in groundwater resulting in decreased oxygen carrying capacity of haemoglobin in babies leading to death.
Q1935. Archaeopteryx had the following reptilian characters
Chondrichthyes is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone. The class is divided into two subclasses Elasmobranchii (sharks, rays, skates, and sawfish) and Holocephali (chimaeras, sometimes called ghost sharks, which are sometimes separated into their own class).
Q1937. Which of the following branches deals with the interactions of same species of living organisms with their non-living environment?
As a medicinal herb, cinchona bark is also known as Jesuit’s bark or Peruvian bark. The bark is stripped from the tree, dried, and powdered for medicinal uses. The bark is medicinally active, containing a variety of alkaloids including the antimalarial compound quinine and the antiarrhythmic quinidine.
Three types of proteins form myofibrils (1) contractile, (2) regulatory, and (3) structural. Contractile proteins are the force generators of muscle contraction. The two contractile proteins in myofibrils are actin and myosin, which are part of the thin filament and thick filament respectively.
Excessive ingestion or absorption causes lead poisoning. Poisoning caused by the presence of lead or lead salts in the body it affects the brain, nervous system, blood, and digestive system and can be either chronic or acute also plumbism and saturnism.
Q1943. Which one of the following is called the ‘digestive bag’ in the cell?
Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed organelles that contain an array of enzymes capable of breaking down all types of biological polymers. One of its functions is to digest materials taken up from outside the cell. That process is called endocytosis. That’s why it is called the suicidal bag of the cell.
Four types of cells are found with in bone tissue. Osteogenic cells are undifferentiated and develop into osteoblasts. When osteoblasts get trapped within the calcified matrix, their structure and function changes they become osteocytes.
Curds are a dairy product obtained by coagulating milk in a process called curdling. The coagulation can be caused by adding rennet or any edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar, and then allowing it to sit. The increased acidity causes the milk proteins (casein) to tangle into solid masses or curds.
Q1947. Which one of the following is known as the ‘immovable property’ in the cell?.
Nucleic acidsare biopolymers, or large biomolecules, essential for all known forms oflife. Nucleic acids, which includeDNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA(ribonucleic acid), are made from monomersknown as nucleotides.
Q1948. The average lifespan of red blood corpuscles is about
Human erythrocytes are produced through a process named erythropoiesis, developing from committed stem cells to mature erythrocytes in about 7 days. When matured, in a healthy individual these cells live in blood circulation for about 100 to 120 days (and 80 to 90 days in a full term infant).
Q1949. Dormancy period of animals during winter season is called :
Hibernation is a mechanism used by many mammals to escape cold weather and food shortage over the winter. Hibernation may be predictive or consequential. An animal prepares for hibernation by building up a thick layer ofbody fatduring late summer and autumn that will provide it with energy during the dormant period.
Q1950. Breeding and management of bees is known as:
Apiculture is the maintenance ofhoney beecolonies commonly in hives by humans. Abeekeeper(or apiarist) keeps bees in order to collect their honeyand other products that the hive produces (including beeswax,propolis,pollen, androyal jelly) topollinatecrops or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiaryor “bee yard”.
Q1951. The vitamin necessary for coagulation of blood is: .
One type uses inactivated poliovirus and is given by injection (IPV), while the other type uses weakened poliovirus and is given by mouth (OPV).Thefirst polio vaccinewas the inactivated polio vaccine. It was developed by Jonas Salk and came into use in 1955.
Minamata disease sometimes referred to as Chisso-Minamata disease, is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning. Symptoms include ataxia, numbness in the hands and feet, general muscle weakness, narrowing of the field of vision and damage to hearing and speech.
Q1954. Which of the following is a good source of Vitamin ‘E’?
Penicillin is a secondary metabolite of certain species of Penicillium and is produced when growth of the fungus is inhibited by stress. It is not produced during active growth. Production is also limited by feedback in the synthesis pathway of penicillin.
Q1956. The total number of bones in the human body is :
The human skeleton is the internal framework of the body. It is composed of around 300 bones at birth – this total decreases to 206 bones by adulthood after some bones have fused together. The bone mass in the skeleton reaches maximum density around age 20.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine. In humans, bile is produced continuously by the liver (liver bile), and stored and concentrated in the gallbladder (gallbladder bile).
Q1958. Name the vitamin not found in any animal food?
If you choose to avoid animal foods, then make sure to supplement withVitamin B12or eat foods that have been fortified with it. Algae are a potential plant source of B12, but whether they can be effective at correctingB12deficiency in humans is not known at this point (8, 9).
The largest internal organ is the liver. It is also the heaviest organ, with an average of 1.6 kilograms (3.5 pounds). The largest external organ, which is also the largest organ in general, is theskin.