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Nervous-system-theory Biology-day-16 Target-ssc-cgl-2018

Nervous-system-theory Biology-day-16 Target-ssc-cgl-2018

NERVOUS  SYSTEM

The functioning of the nervous system depends on detecting a stimulus in the internal or external environment and responding to it.

Basic unit of nervous system is neuron. There are three types of neuron : sensory, motor and association or connecting neurons.

Nervous system of human is divided into three parts :-

  • Central Nervous System
  • Peripheral Nervous System
  • Autonomic Nervous System

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

It keeps control on whole body and also on nervous system itself.

It is made up of two parts : Brain and Spinal cord.

Both brain and spinal cord are covered by 3 three membranes:

  • The outer membrane: Durameter.
  • Middle membrane: Arachnoid membrane.
  • Inner membrane: Piameter.

Brain

  • It is covered by a membrane called meninges.
  • It is covered by a bony box called cranium which protects the brain from any injury.

Brain is also divided into three parts :-

(A) FORE BRAIN

  • Fore brain consists of Cerebrum, Thalamus and Hypothalamus.
  • Cerebrum is the center if wisdom, memory, will power, movements, knowledge and thinking.
  • Thalamus is the center of pain, cold and heat.
  • Hypothalamus controls the hormonal secretion of endocrine glands. BP, sweat, anger, joy, thirst, hunger etc.

Nervous-system-theory
(B) MID BRAIN

  • This is the center of vision and hearing power.

(C) HIND BRAIN

  • It consists of Cerebellum, Pons and Medulla.
  • Cerebellum maintains the body posture of human being.
  • Pons acts as a bridge between the brain and the spinal cord.
  • Medulla controls activities like heart action, respiration, coughing, sneezing etc.

Spinal cord

  • The spinal cord extends from the medulla oblongata and continues downwards and lies within the neural canal of the vertebral column or backbone.
  • From the side of spinal cord, give rise to 31 pairs of spinal nerves.
  • It controls the reflexes below the neck.
  • It conducts the sensory impulses from the skin and muscles to the brain.
  • Vertebrae of the vertebral column protect the spinal cord from injuries.
  • It conducts the motor responses from the brain to the muscles of the trunk and limbs.

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • It is made up of the nerves arising from brain and spinal cord.
  • There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves.

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • It consists of two sets of motor neurons and a collection of ganglia
  • It supplies nerves to all the internal organs and blood vessel of the body.
  • Hair gets erected by its action.
  • It increases the RBC, rate of respiration, BP and blood sugar in the body.

 

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