Magnesium hydroxide is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2. It occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It is a white solid with low solubility in water. Magnesium hydroxide is a common component of antacids, such as milk of magnesia, as well as laxatives.
Q2. ________ is the process of restoring a forest that once existed but was removed at some point of time in the past.
______ यह प्रक्रिया हैं जिसमें वन को फिर से लगाया जाता है जो पहले कभी मौजूद था और बाद में उसे नष्ट कर दिया गया|
Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests.
Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation.
A greenhouse is a structure with walls and roof made chiefly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
Jhum cultivation, also known as the slash and burn agriculture, is the process of growing crops by first clearing the land of trees and vegetation and burning them thereafter. The burnt soil contains potash which increases the nutrient content of the soil.
Q3. _______ scheme launched by the Central Government to eliminate open defecation by constructing toilets for households, communities.
केंद्र सरकार द्वारा शुरू की गई ______ योजना का उदेश्य घरों और समुदायों में शौचालय का निर्माण करके खुले में शौच को दूर करना है|
(a) Swachh Bharat Abhiyan/ स्वच्छ भारत अभियान
(b) Gram Uday Se Bharat Uday Abhiyan/ ग्राम उदय से भारत उदय अभियान
(c) Stand up India scheme/ स्टैंड अप इंडिया स्कीम
(d) National RU URBAN Mission/ नेशनल आरयू अर्बन मिशन
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan – Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA) (or Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) or Clean India Mission in English) is a campaign in India that aims to clean up the streets, roads and infrastructure of India’s cities, smaller towns, and rural areas. The objectives of Swachh Bharat include eliminating open defecation through the construction of household-owned and community-owned toilets and establishing an accountable mechanism of monitoring toilet use.
Gram Uday Se Bharat Uday Abhiyan – Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched ‘Gram Uday Se Bharat Uday Abhiyan’ (Village Self Governance Campaign) to strengthen Panchayati Raj in villages and ensure social harmony in villages.
Stand up India scheme – Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the ‘Stand up India‘ scheme on 5 April 2016 as part of the government’s efforts to support entrepreneurship among women and SC & ST communities.
National RU URBAN Mission – On 22 February 2016, Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the National Rurban Mission (NRM) from Kurubhat in Rajnandgaon district of Chhattisgarh. The mission, also dubbed as “Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission” (SPMRM) aims to spur social, economic and infrastructure development in rural areas by developing a cluster of 300 Smart Villages over the next 3 years across the country in the first phase. More clusters will be identified depending upon the progress of the scheme. This mission was announced in the Union Budget 2014-15. NRuM is to be implemented by Ministry of Rural Development.
Q4. What is the process of rust forming on iron called?
Chlorofluorocarbons – Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are anthropogenic compounds that have been released into the atmosphere since the 1930s in various applications such as in air-conditioning, refrigeration, blowing agents in foams, insulations and packing materials, propellants in aerosol cans, and as solvents.
Stratosphere – The stratosphere (/ˈstrætəˌsfɪər, -toʊ-/) is the second major layer of Earth’s atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. About 20% of the atmosphere’s mass is contained in the stratosphere.
Ozone hole – Ozone depletion describes two related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth’s stratosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth’s polar regions.The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole.
Greenhouse – A greenhouse is a structure with walls and roof made chiefly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown. These structures range in size from small sheds to industrial-sized buildings.
Q6. ______________ scheme launched by the Central Government aims to spur social, economic and infrastructure development in rural areas by developing a cluster of 300 Smart Villages.
केंद्र सरकार द्वारा शुरू की गई______योजना का उद्देश्य 300 स्मार्ट गावों का विकास करके ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में सामाजिक,आर्थिक और आधारित संरचना के विकास को प्रोत्साहित करना है|
On 22 February 2016, Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the National Rurban Mission (NRM) from Kurubhat in Rajnandgaon district of Chhattisgarh. The mission, also dubbed as “Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission” (SPMRM) aims to spur social, economic and infrastructure development in rural areas by developing a cluster of 300 Smart Villages over the next 3 years across the country in the first phase. More clusters will be identified depending upon the progress of the scheme. This mission was announced in the Union Budget 2014-15. NRuM is to be implemented by Ministry of Rural Development.
Soaps for cleaning are obtained by treating vegetable or animal oils and fats with a strong base, such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide in an aqueous solution. Fats and oils are composed of triglycerides; three molecules of fatty acids attach to a single molecule of glycerol.The alkaline solution, which is often called lye (although the term “lye soap” refers almost exclusively to soaps made with sodium hydroxide), induces saponification.
Q8. Any undesirable change in physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air, land, water or soil is called?
वायु,भूमि,जल या मृदा के भौतिक,रासायनिक या जैवीय अभिलक्षणों में होने वाला एक अवांछनीय परिवर्तन ______कहलाता है |
Sukanya Samridhi Yojana – Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana is a small deposit scheme of the Government of India meant exclusively for a girl child and is launched as a part of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Campaign. The scheme is meant to meet the education and marriage expenses of a girl child.
Bal Swachta Mission – The Bal Swachhta Mission is a part of the nationwide sanitation initiative of ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’ launched by the Prime Minister on 2nd October, 2014. The nationwide Bal Swachhta Mission will have the following six themes:-
Clean Anganwadis .
Clean Surroundings e.g. Playground
Clean Self (Personal Hygiene/Child Health).
Clean Drinking Water.
Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana – Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana(P.M.J.D.Y), Prime Minister’s People Money Scheme is India’s National Mission for Financial Inclusion to ensure access to financial services, namely Banking Savings & Deposit Accounts, Remittance, Credit, Insurance, Pension in an affordable manner. Account can be opened in any bank branch or Business Correspondent (Bank Mitr) outlet. Accounts opened under PMJDY are being opened with Zero balance.
Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Yojana – Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao is a social campaign of the Government of India that aims to generate awareness and improve the efficiency of welfare services intended for girls.
Limewater is the common name for a diluted solution of calcium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)₂, is sparsely soluble in water. Pure limewater is clear and colorless, with a slight earthy smell and an alkaline bitter taste of calcium hydroxide.
Q11. Presence of large amounts of nutrients in waters also causes excessive growth of _________ algae.
जलाशय में काफी मात्रा में पोषकों की उपस्थिति के कारण _____ शैवाल की अतिशीय वृद्धि होती है |
Biomagnification – Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification or biological magnification, is the increasing concentration of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain.
Algal bloom – An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.
Eutrophication – One example is the “bloom” or great increase of phytoplankton in a water body as a response to increased levels of nutrients. Eutrophication is almost always induced by the discharge of phosphate-containing detergents, fertilizers, or sewage, into an aquatic system.
Q12. ______ scheme launched by the Central Government plans to issue soil cards to farmers which will carry crop-wise recommendations of nutrients and fertilisers.
केंद सरकार द्वारा शुरू की गयी _______ योजना के तहत किसानों को मृदा कार्ड देने की योजना है जिसमे फसलों के अनुसार पोषक तत्वों और उर्वरक आदि की सलाह दी जाएगी|
Soil Health Card – Soil Health Card Scheme is a scheme launched by the Government of India in February 2015. Under the scheme, the government plans to issue soil cards to farmers which will carry crop-wise recommendations of nutrients and fertilisers required for the individual farms to help farmers to improve productivity through judicious use of inputs.
Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission – The Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission (SPMRM) was a scheme launched by Government of India in 2016 to deliver integrated project based infrastructure in the rural areas, which also include development of economic activities and skill development. The preferred mode of delivery is through Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) while using various scheme funds for financing.
Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana – The Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (Prime Minister’s Crop Insurance Scheme) was launched by Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi on 18 February 2016. It envisages a uniform premium of only 2 per cent to be paid by farmers for Kharif crops, and 1.5 per cent for Rabi crops. The premium for annual commercial and horticultural crops will be 5 per cent.
National R-URBAN Mission – NRM through development of rurban growth clusters aims at catalyzing overall regional growth for simultaneously benefiting the rural as well as urban areas of the country.