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Consumer Protection :: SSC CGL (study material) | Pinnacle Coaching

Consumer Protection :: SSC CGL (study material) | Pinnacle Coaching

Dear Aspirants,

As you must be aware, Economy and Economy Basic Concepts. Economics is one of the most important part of General Awareness Section. Here, In this article we are sharing some important notes of EconomyIf you regularly follow the content provided on our website regarding G.S. section questions, it will help you to score good in G.S. section.

We also provide the PDF solution and video solution for each & every previous year paper of SSC CHSL & SSC CGL, both Tier 1 and Tier 2 on our website.

We hope this will be helpful in your Examination.


We buy pay for it and derive satisfaction from its consumption and use. But sometimes we a variety of goods and services in our day-to-day life. Whatever we buy we do not feel satisfied with the product we buy. This may be on account of poor quality of the product, overcharging by the shopkeeper, lower quantity of contents, misleading advertisement, and so on. Should we allow these practices to continue? Obviously not; then is there any remedy for such malpractices? The answer lies in the concept and practice of consumer protection, the rights and responsibilities of consumers, legal provisions and mechanism for settlement of consumer grievances.

Meaning of Consumer-

consumer is a person who consumes or uses any goods or services. Goods may be consumables like wheat flour, salt, sugar, fruit etc. or durable items like television, refrigerator, toaster, mixer, bicycle etc. Services refer to items like electricity, cooking gas, telephone, transportation, film show etc. Normally, it is the consumption or use of goods and services that makes the person to be called as ‘consumer’.

Concept Of Consumer Protection-

Consumer protection means safeguarding the interest and rights of consumers. In other words, it refers to the measures adopted for the protection of consumers from unscrupulous and unethical malpractices by the business and to provide them speedy redressal of their grievances. The most common business malpractices leading to consumer exploitation are given below.

(a) Sale of adulterated goods i.e., adding something inferior to the product being sold.

(b) Sale of spurious goods i.e., selling something of little value instead of the real product.

(c) Sale of sub-standard goods i.e., sale of goods which do not confirm to prescribed quality standards.

(d) Sale of duplicate goods.

(e) Use of false weights and measures leading to underweight.

(f) Hoarding and black-marketing leading to scarcity and rise in price.

(g) Charging more than the Maximum Retail Price (MRP) fixed for the product.

(h) Supply of defective goods.


Consumer Protection :: SSC CGL (study material) | Pinnacle Coaching
Need For Consumer Protection-

(a) Social Responsibility

The business must be guided by certain social and ethical norms. It is the moral responsibility of the business to serve the interest of consumers. Keeping in line with this principle, it is the duty of producers and traders to provide right quality and quantity of goods at fair prices to the consumers.

(b) Increasing Awareness

The consumers are becoming more mature and conscious of their rights against the malpractices by the business. There are many consumer organisations and associations who are making efforts to build consumer awareness, taking up their cases at various levels and helping them to enforce their rights.

(c) Consumer Satisfaction

Father of the Nation Mahatma Gandhi had once given a call to manufactures and traders to “treat your consumers as god”. Consumers’ satisfaction is the key to success of business. Hence, the businessmen should take every step to serve the interests of consumers by providing them quality goods and services at reasonable price.

(d) Principle of Social Justice

Exploitation of consumers is against the directive principles of state policy as laid down in the Constitution of India. Keeping in line with this principle, it is expected from the manufacturers, traders and service providers to refrain from malpractices and take care of consumers’ interest.

(e) Principle of Trusteeship

According to Gandhian philosophy, manufactures and producers are not the real owners of the business. Resources are supplied by the society. They are merely the trustees of the resources and, therefore, they should use such resources effectively for the benefit of the society, which includes the consumers.

(f) Survival and Growth of Business

The business has to serve consumer interests for their own survival and growth. On account of globalisation and increased competition, any business organisation which indulges in malpractices or fails to provide improved services to their ultimate consumer shall find it difficult to continue. Hence, they must in their own long run interest, become consumer oriented.

Rights Of Consumers-

(a) Right to Safety

It is the right of the consumers to be protected against goods and services which are hazardous to health or life. For example, defective vehicles could lead to serious accidents. The same is true of electrical appliances with sub-standard material. Only recently, there were mass protests and boycott of soft drinks due to presence of hazardous pesticides beyond permissible limits. Thus, right to safety is an important right available to the consumer which ensures that the manufacturers shall not produce and sell sub-standard and dangerous products.

(b) Right to be Informed

The right to be informed is an important component of consumer protection. The consumer must be provided with adequate and accurate information about quality, quantity, purity, standard and the price of the goods and services. Now-a-days the manufacturers provide detailed information about the contents of the product, its quantity, date of manufacturing, date of expiry, maximum retail price, precautions to be taken, etc. on the label and package of the product. Such information helps the consumers in their buying decision and use of the product.

(c) Right to Choose

The right to choose provides that the consumer must be assured, whenever possible, access to a variety of goods and services at competitive prices. If the market has enough varieties of products at highly competitive prices, the buyers have an opportunity of wide selection. However, incase of monopolies like railways, postal service and electricity supply etc. it implies a right to be assured of satisfactory quality of service at a fair price.

(d) Right to be Heard

The rights to safety, information and choice will be frivolous without the right to be heard. This right has three interpretations. Broadly speaking, this right means that consumers have a right to be consulted by Government and public bodies when decisions and policies are made affecting consumer interests. Also, consumers have a right to be heard by manufactures, dealers and advertisers about their opinion on production, marketing decisions and any grievances of the consumers. Now-a-days, most of the top manufacturers and firms have set up consumer service cells to attend to consumers’ complaints and take appropriate steps for their redressal. Thirdly, consumers have the right to be heard in legal proceedings in law courts dealing with consumer complaints.

(e) Right to Seek Redressal

The consumers have been given the right of redressal of their grievances relating to the performance, grade, quality etc. of the goods and services. If required, the product must be repaired / replaced by the seller/ manufacturer. The Consumer Protection Act has duly provides for a fair settlement of genuine grievances of the consumers. It has also set up a proper mechanism for their redressal at district, state and national levels.

(f) Right to Consumer Education

It means the right to receive knowledge and skill to become informed consumer. In this direction the consumer associations, educational institutions and the policy makers can play an important part. They are expected to impart information and knowledge about (i) the relevant laws which are aimed at preventing unfair trade practices, (ii) the ways and means which dishonest traders and producers may adopt to deceive the consumers, (iii) insistence on a bill or receipt at the time of purchase, and (iv) the procedure to be followed by consumers while making complaints. Effective consumer education leads to an increased level of consumer awareness and help them to enforce their rights more effectively, and protect themselves against fraudulent, deceitful and grossly misleading advertisement, labeling, etc.

Responsibilities Of Consumers-

(a) Be quality conscious

To put a stop to adulteration and corrupt practices of the manufacturers and traders, it is the duty of every consumer to be conscious of the quality of product they buy. They should look for the standard quality certification marks like ISI, Agmark, FPO, Woolmark, Eco-mark, Hallmark etc. while making the purchases.

(b) Beware of misleading advertisements

The advertisement often exaggerates the quality of products. Hence, the consumers should not rely on the advertisement and carefully check the product or ask the users before making a purchase. Incase there are discrepancies, the same should be brought to the notice of the sponsors and the appropriate authority, if need be.

(c) Responsibility to inspect a variety of goods before making selection

The consumer should inspect a variety of goods before buying the goods and service. For this purpose he/she should compare their quality, price, durability, after sales service etc. This would enable the consumers to make the best choice within the limit of their own resources.

(d) Collect proof of transaction

The consumer should insist on a valid documentary evidence (cash memo/invoice) relating to purchase of goods or availing of any services and preserve it carefully. Such proof of purchase is required for filing a complaint. In case of durable goods the manufactures generally provide the warrantee/guarantee card along with the product. It is the duty of consumers to obtain these documents and ensure that these are duly signed, stamped and dated. The consumer must preserve them till the warrantee/ guarantee period is over.

(e) Consumers must be aware of their rights

The consumers must be aware of their rights as stated above and exercise them while buying goods and services. For example, it is the responsibility of a consumer to insist on getting all information about the quality of the product and ensure himself/ herself that it is free from any kind of defects.

(f) Complaint for genuine grievances

As a consumer if you are dissatisfied with the product/services, you can ask for redressal of your grievances. In this regard, you must file a proper claim with the company first. If the manufacturer/company does not respond, then you can approach the forums. But your claim must state actual loss and the compensation claim must be reasonable. At no cost fictitious complaints should be filed otherwise the forum may penalise you.

(g) Proper use of product/services

It is expected from the consumers that they use and handle the product/services properly. It has been noticed that during guarantee period, people tend to reckless use of the product, thinking that it will be replaced during the guarantee period. This practice should be avoided.

Apart from the responsibility enumerated above, the consumers should be conscious of their duty towards other consumers, society and ecology and make responsible choice. In other words, their purchases and consumption should not lead to waste of natural resources and energy and environmental pollution.


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