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Rules for pronouns

RULES FOR PRONOUNS

RULES FOR PRONOUNS

What is a pronoun?

A pronoun is a word that substitutes a noun, such as it (substituting for the name of a certain object) or a person, such as he (substituting for the name of a person).

Kinds of Pronouns

  1. Personal Pronouns:  e.g. I, you, He, she, it, they, who, me, him, her, them, whom
  2. Possessive Pronouns: e.g. yours, mine, his, hers, ours, theirs,
  3. Reflexive Pronouns: e.g. myself, himself, herself, itself, yourself, ourselves, themselves
  4. Reciprocal Pronoun: e.g. each other, one another
  5. Relative Pronouns: e.g. who, whom, whose, which, that
  6. Demonstrative Pronoun: e.g. this, these, that, those
  7. Distributive Pronouns: Each , either, neither ,every, none etc.
  8. Interrogative Pronouns: Who whom whose which etc.

First, Second and Third Person Forms of Personal Pronouns

Rules for pronouns

Pronouns naturally are of three persons:—

(1) First person, representing the person speaking.

(2) Second person, representing a person or thing spoken to. www.ssccglpinnacle.com

(3) Third person, standing for a person or thing spoken of.

Case Subjective Objective Possessive  
  Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person I We me us my our
          mine ours
Second person you you you you your yours
          your yours
Third person he they him them his/her their
  she   her   hers theirs
  it   it   its  

Rules for Pronouns

Rule 1

If the pronoun is used before the verb it will be in the nominative case. If the pronoun is used after the verb it will be in the objective case.

  • Nominative case pronouns – I, We, You, She, He, It, They.
  • Objective case pronouns – Me, us, you, him, her, it, them.

Examples-

  • We went to the store today.
  • She studied at Pinnacle.
  • You ran five miles in the morning yesterday.
  • They are not very happy about what happened during the match.
  • The dean nominated Neelima and me (not Neelima and I) to serve on the committee. (used as objective pronoun as it is used after the verb)

Rule 2

In those sentences where pronouns of different persons are used there is a specific order to place them. When some pleasant news is to be announced, the speaker uses this order: II person, III person and I person, and when some unpleasant news is to be announced, use this order: I person, II person and III person.

Example :

  • You, she and I have been commended for the success of the project.
  • I, you and she have been held responsible for the failure of the project.

Rule 3 (Comparing pronouns)

While making comparisons in pronouns the pronouns compared should be of the same case. It means either both should be of the nominative pronouns or both should be objective pronouns.

Example :www.ssccglpinnacle.com

  • She is as intelligent as him.
  • This is incorrect as She and Him are being compared. She is in nominative case and him is in the objective case. So replace him by he.

Rule 4

If a sentence begins with it as the subject followed by any form of be (was/were/is/am/are etc) then the pronoun should be in nominative form.

Example:

  • It was them who have funded your whole education.(Replace them by they as them is in the objective form.)
  • It was us who organized the whole party.( Replace us by we as us is in the objective form)

Rule 5

Rules for pronouns

Rules for pronouns

When to use reflexive pronouns

 When the subject and the object refer to the same person or thing.

  • He accidentally cut himself while he was chopping the vegetables.
  • Sheela bought a present for herself.
  • They injured themselves during the  match.
  • I enjoyed myself at the movie.
  • The dog is scratching itself . www.ssccglpinnacle.com

We use them for emphasis.

  • The author signed the book for me herself!
  • I did it myself.

We use a reflexive pronoun after the following verbs – Amuse ,avail, blame ,cut ,dry, enjoy, help , hurt ,behave, introduce ,kill, adapt, absent and enjoy.

Examples:

  • I wish the children would behave themselves.
  • He busied himself in the kitchen.
  • Would you like to help yourself to another drink?
  • I saw myself as a famous actor in my dream.

Do not use a reflexive pronoun after verbs which describe things people usually do for themselves, such as wash, shave, dress, hide , rest, stop, turn, move etc.

  • He washed himself in cold water. ( Incorrect) (Remove himself.)
  • He always shaved himself before going out in the evening. (Remove himself.)
  • He dressed himself and got ready for the party.( Remove himself.)
  • We only use reflexives with these verbs for emphasis:
  • He dressed himself in spite of his injuries.
  • The students are old enough to read the book themselves.

Rule 6 (Each other and one another)

Use “each other” when referring to two things.

Use “one another” when referring to three or more things.

Each other refers to two, one another to more than two.

“The two brothers quarreled; they struck each other” is correct.

“The three brothers quarreled; they struck one another” is also correct.

Examples-

  • The newly married couple danced with each other at the party.
  • After the test at Pinnacle the students discussed the paper with one another.
  • The players of the team competed with one another for the ball.

Rule 7

To avoid the repetition of a singular noun in a sentence that of is used.

To avoid the repetition of a plural noun in a sentence those of is used.

Example-

  • The population of China is more than the population  (Replace the population by that of) India.
  • The students of Pinnacle are far better than the students (Replace the students by those of) of any other centre.

Rule 8

Relative pronouns are used to tell us more about a person or thing-Who, whom , that ,which , whose are used as relative pronouns.

Examples-

  • My mother, who was a working woman in the sixties is an extremely hard working lady.
  • Ravi Sharma, who is 62, has just retired.
  • This is the artist whose paintings sell for millions in the international market.

Who and whom is used for persons.

Examples-He is the man whom the police arrested last night.

Mrs Gupta who works as a clerk in my office is on leave today.

Use which or that when we talk about things (but not people).

Example-This is the watch which my husband bought for me.

Use whose to show possession.

Example – Ravi, whose brother is a politician , manages to get all the government contacts.

That is used if the antecedent is a person and superlative degree is used.

Example -The most beautiful woman that I have ever met is my mother.

Mrs Gupta is the most efficient teacher that teaches maths to the senior section.

If all is used for persons the relative pronoun will be who if all is used for things the relative pronoun will be that. (Do not use whom and which)

Example – All who are appearing for the exam on Sunday should inform the principal right now.

All that appears before the eyes need not necessarily be true.

All that they did for the marriage pre[rations was wasted due to the rain.

Relative pronoun that is used with everything, nothing, the only, any, all, everyone, none, no, nobody, much, the same, little, the few etc.

Example- This is the only branded shirt that I have.

The little rain that took place was of great help to the farmers.

RULE 9

Mine, ours , yours ,his, hers and theirs are possessive pronouns which are never used directly before the noun.

A possessive adjective will be used before a noun directly. My, our, your, his, her, their, are possessive adjectives. His is used as a possessive pronoun as well as possessive adjective.

Example- Hers house is located in sector 13 in Hisar. (Replace hers by her)

Theirs father works in a bank. (Replace theirs by their)

Rules for pronouns
RULE 10

Do not use apostrophe with possessive adjectives. Examples- your’s , her’s etc. It’s is not using apostrophe with It but it is the contracted form of it is.

Rule 11

If one is used as the subject of the sentence then one’s and onself will be used in the sentence and not him and himself.

Example- One should finish one’s work in time.

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SSC English Study Material : VOICE (Active/Passive) PDF

SSC English Study Material : VOICE  (Active/Passive) PDF

To understand active and passive voice we need to understand two things first.

 1    What is a subject?

A subject shows-

(a) what the sentence is about, or

(b) who or what performs the action.

 2    What is an object?

Apart from serving as subjects in sentences Nouns may also function as objects in sentences. Pronouns may also serve as objects. Objects receive the action and usually follow the verb.

We simply add what to the verb and the answer we get is the object.

Eg Ravi threw stones in the water. (Ravi is the subject. Threw is the verb. Threw what? The answer is stones which is the object.) Pronouns may also serve as objects.

Active and Passive Voice

In “active voice” sentences the sentence begins with the subject. But in passive voice the subject (Doer) is towards the end of the sentence.

 Where do we use passive voice?

1   When intentionally hiding the subject of sentence.

Example     Some chapters were not studied.

2   When passive voice better explain thought of sentence.

Example, to say, Milk is sold in litres is better than saying ,Shop keepers sell milk  in litres

3   When something is done upon someone. When something happened with someone.

Example     You will be ruined if you continue gambling.

4  When what happened is more important than who did it.

Example    The strike was called off.

5  When subject is not exactly known. For example, His watch was stolen.

It is not known that who stole his watch, the subject (thief) is not exactly known so it is better to use passive voice for such sentence.

SSC English Study Material : VOICE (Active/Passive) PDF
 Fundamental Rules for changing from active voice to passive voice

1    The places of subject and object are interchanged i.e. the object shifts to the place of subject and subject

shifts to the place of object in passive voice.

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Rules for adjectives

Rules for  ADJECTIVES

What is an adjective?

An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun.

The yellow sunflower looked beautiful.(The word yellow describes the sunflower which is the noun)

Kinds of adjectives

1          Adjectives of Quality

These adjectives are used to describe the nature of a noun. They give an idea about the characteristics of the noun by answering the question ‘what kind’.

2          Adjectives of Quantity

These adjectives help to show the amount or the approximate amount of the noun or pronoun. These adjectives do not provide exact numbers; rather they tell us the amount of the noun in relative or whole terms.

All, Half, Many, Few, Little, No, Enough, Great etc.

3          Adjectives of Number

These adjectives are used to show the number of nouns and their place in an order.

4          Demonstrative Adjectives  

These adjectives are used to point out or indicate a particular noun or pronoun using the adjectives – This, That, These and Those.

5          Interrogative Adjectives

These adjectives are used to ask questions about nouns or in relation to nouns, they are – Where, What, Which and Whose.

How to order adjectives in English

Generally, the adjective order in English is:

1          Quantity or number

2          Quality or opinion

3          Size

4          Age

5          Shape

6          Color www.ssccglpinnacle.com

7          Proper adjective (often nationality, other place of origin, or material)

8          Purpose or qualifier

Rules for adjectives
For example:

  • I love that big,old , green, antique car that is parked at the end of the street.
  • My sister adopted a beautiful, big, white,bull dog.
  • The five, little, silver spoons are on the table.
  • An amazing, heart-shaped, red balloon was in the sky.

Degrees of Adjectives

There are three degrees of adjectives.

  1. Positive Adjective
  2. Comparative Adjective
  3. Superlative Adjective
Rules for adjectives

Rules for adjectives

Some Examples:

  Positive    Comparative   Superlative
1 Big Bigger Biggest
2 Great Greater Greatest
3 Short Shorter Shortest
4 Old older oldest
5 Large larger largest
6 Happy happier happiest
7 Lucky luckier luckiest
8 Heavy heavier heaviest
9 Beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
10 Horrible more horrible most horrible
11 good better best
12 bad worse worst
13 Little less least
14 far farther farthest

  (Any simple grammar book can be referred to for knowing more about degrees of adjectives)

Rule 1

While  making comparisons between two things the comparative degree is used and not the superlative degree.

Example-She is not the richest of the two sisters.(Incorrect)

                She is the richer of the two sisters. (Correct)

Rule 2

In comparative degree- (adjective + er ) + than  is used. ‘Than’ is used in case of comparison between two persons or things and an adjective of comparative degree will be used with it.

Example-He is taller than his sister.

Rule 3

If a choice has to be made between two persons or things the comparative degree will be used.Article the will be used before the comparative degree and ( of the) will be used after the comparative degree.

The structure will be—

…….the + Comparative + of the…………

Example- Hisar is the better of the two cities.

                Sachin is the better of the two players.

Similarly is the choice is to be made between more than two things or persons the superlative degree will be used.

The structure will be—

…….the + Superlative degree + of the…………

Example-Hari is the best of all the batsmen in the Indian cricket team.

                English is the easiest of all the languages taught in the school.

Rule 4

If two qualities are to be compared of the same person or thing then we don’t use the comparative degree. Comparative degree is used for comparison between two different things or persons. Instead of using the comparative degree more and positive degree will be used. www.ssccglpinnacle.com

Example- Rahul is luckier than hardworking. (Incorrect)

(Two qualities of the same person that is Rahul are being compared (his luck and his hard work).So     comparative degree can’t be used.)

Rahul is more lucky than hardworking. (Correct)

Rule 5

If an adjective is to be used between “as………as” and “so……….as” the adjective should be in positive degree.

As…..as is used to show that something is equally good or bad.

Example- Hisar is as hot as Ganganagar in May.

So…….as is used to show something is not as good or as bad.

Example- Bhopal is not so developed as Delhi.

This rule is also applicable in adverbs.

Example- Geeta danced as gracefully as Lata.

Rule 6

Article the is used before superlative degree as it becomes definite.

Example- Ludhiana is the most polluted city of Punjab.

Rule 7

Puneet is taller than any boy in the class. (Incorrect)

Puneet is taller than any other boy in the class. (Correct)

In both these sentences we are comparing Puneet to any boy in the class but one at a time. In such sentences where we wish to state that someone or something is better or worse than the rest but is to be taken one at a time any other will be used.

Some more examples-

Maths is more interesting than any other subject.

January is colder than any other month of the year.

Rule 8

In comparative degree than is used. But for adjectives ending in ‘ior’ than is not used, instead ‘to’ is used .

List of such adjectives-

Superior, inferior, junior ,senior, prior, anterior, posterior, exterior, interior etc.

Example- He was junior than I in college. (Incorrect)

                He was junior to me in college. (Correct)

Rule 9

Certain adjectives can’t be used in comparative and superlative degree.

Example-

  1. A) The presentation was perfect. (Correct)
  2. B) Your presentation was more perfect. (Incorrect)
  3. C) His presentation was the most perfect (Incorrect)

Both the sentences B and C are incorrect.Perfect means flawless. When we are already saying something is perfect it means it is flawless so more perfect and most perfect can’t be used.

List of such words that can’t be used in comparative and superlative degree are-

Supreme,impossible,absolute,ideal,everlasting,eternal,triangular, square, round, major, minor, complete, entire, chief, extreme, excellent, minor, ulterior, universal, unique ,last and final.

  1. a) Darjeeling tea is the most superior tea in India. (Incorrect)
  2. b) Darjeeling tea is superior to any other tea grown in India. (Correct)

Rule 10

If two adjectives are being used for the same noun or pronoun than the adjective should be in the same degree .

Example- India is the greatest and tolerant country. (Incorrect)

                India is a great and tolerant country.(Correct) www.ssccglpinnacle.com

Rule 11

For directions and some other adjectives there is positive and superlative degree only. There is no comparative degree.

 

    POSITIVE  DEGREE                         SUPERLATIVE  DEGREE
1                             Top                                                    topmost
2             Centre                                             Centremost
3             Right                                                   rightmost
4             Bottom                                              bottommost
5             Northern                                               northernmost

Rule 12

The same word can be an adjective in a sentence and a noun in another sentence. For certain words that are mostly used as nouns if they are used as an adjective in a sentence they can’t be used in the plural form.

Example- The tables cloth was washed, ironed and spread on the table.

Table is a noun but here it is used as an adjective. So tables can’t be used but table will be used.

Rule 13           Special note: Prefer and preferable.

1          It is used in comparative degree only.

2          We use the preposition to with it and not than although it is in the comparative degree. We do not use more with prefer.

3          Prefer to can be replaced by rather than.

            I prefer walking to running.

            I prefer walking rather than running.

Rules for adjectives
Rule 14

There are certain adjectives if we use the before them they will become plural common noun.

In such sentences the verb will be plural.

Example – The rich people feel the law can be turned and twisted.

In the given sentence people is the noun and rich is the adjective. But if we remove people from the sentence

we are left with:

The rich feel the law can be turned and twisted. (Now the noun people has been removed so rich can’t be

an adjective as adjective is associated to noun or pronoun. So now rich functions as a noun itself and the can

be used before it along with a plural verb. The adjective becomes a noun.

More examples-

a) The blind are demanding reservation in jobs.

b) The rich are getting richer day by day.

c) The injured were in the thousands.

d) Millions join the ranks of the unemployed worldwide every year.

  1. e) There are no plans to provide cheap housing for the homeless.

Rule 15

With certain adjectives if we add ‘ly’ it becomes an adverb.

Example  –

   Adjective      Adverb

    sweet               sweetly

   Bad                   badly

  Polite               politely

This does not mean that when ‘ly’ is added to all the adjectives they become adverbs. Students commit errors by making words which do not even exist such as fastly. She spoke fastly. This is incorrect. The correct usage will be she spoke fast. Certain words will be used as adjectives as well as adverbs. There won’t be any change in their usage.

Example-

  1. a) Rajiv is my fast friend. (Fast is an adjective)
  2. b) He drove very fast. (Fast is an adverb)

The following words may be used both as adjectives and adverbs

Fast

  • Modern man leads a fast life. (Here the adjective fast modifies the noun life.)
  • He drove the car fast. (Here the adverb fast modifies the verb drove.)

Half

  • Each of them has half ownership in the property. (Here the adjective half modifies the noun ownership.)
  • She was half crying, half laughing. (Here the adverb half modifies the verbs crying and laughing.)
  • She is half Spanish, half French. (Here the adverb half modifies the adjectives Spanish and French.)

Straight

  • Don’t expect to get a straight answer from her. (Here the adjective straight modifies the noun answer.)
  • She went straight home. (Here the adverb straight modifies the verb went.)

Just

  • The train just left. (Adverb)
  • He arrived just in time. (Adverb)
  • God is just. (Adjective)

Late

  • The engagement ceremony is in the late evening. (Adjective)
  • He arrived late. (Adverb)
  • She worked late. (Adverb)

Low

  • We are low on money supply. (Adjective)
  • Her voice was low. (Adjective)
  • She turned the gas down low. (Adverb)
  • The helicopter flew low over the trees. (Adverb)

Most

  • This is the most expensive gadget I have bought. (Adverb)
  • Most people enjoy playing with kids. (Adjective)

Clean

  • He is very clean in his habits. (Adjective)
  • We want to play the game clean. (Adverb)

Adjectives ending in -ly

The following words can be used only as adjectives and not as adverbs:

beastly, costly, cowardly, deadly, friendly, likely, brotherly, kingly, leisurely, lovely, lively, womanly, princely, scholarly, silly, ugly and unlikely.

She offered some friendly advice. (Here the adjective friendly modifies the noun advice.)

There are no adverbs friendly/friendlily. Instead we use an adverb phrase.

a) She offered some advice in a friendly manner.

b) He behaved in a cowardly manner.

With verbs relating to our senses (sight, smell, taste, hear and feel) an adjective is used and not an adverb.

Example-

  • The food tastes badly.(Incorrect)
  •  The food tastes bad.(Correct)
  • The child behaved badly at the party.(Correct -Adverb will be used as behave is not related to senses)
  •   It feels coldly.(Incorrect- Feel is related to the senses)
  •   He replied coldly to my question.(correct)

With other verbs like seem, like, look, prove, make, keep, grow, get, turn, be and become the adjective is used instead of the adverb.

  1. He proved it right.
  2.  It is rightly said that hard work leads to success.
  3. It becomes hot after sunrise.
  4.  It is a hotly debated matter across the globe.

Rule 16

If there is the need to use two prepositions in a sentence with two adjectives then use it.

Rule 17

An ordinal number is an adjective that denotes what place an object has in a certain order.

Example – first , second, third, fourth …………….

Cardinal number tells us about the number of things.

Example- one ,two, three ,four, five……………………….

Ordinal adjective is used before a cardinal adjective.

  • The first two classes went smoothly.
  • The first five people were given a surprise gift by the store.

Rule 18           Confusing adjectives

Many – Much

Use much with collective nouns and singular nouns. Use many with plural nouns. Here’s an example.

  • Geeta doesn’t have much food.
  • Chitra doesn’t have many friends.

Few – A Few

A few represents a positive quantity, but it can only be used with countable nouns.

The word few represents a negative quantity or shortage.

  • Julie has a few friends although she is new in the city.
  • Julie has few friends although she has been in the city for two years.

Little – A little

Like few and a few, the little and a little represent negative and positive quantities.

Always use a little with non-countable nouns. The word little expresses a negative quantity.

  • There is a little sauce left for you to eat with the bread.
  • He has been studying this topic for the last three days but there is little improvement.
  • There is little hope of his survival as his head was nearly crushed in the accident

Farther – Further

Farther (root word far) is always used for distance, and further (think furthermore) means advancement.

  • How much farther is Rohtak from Hisar?
  • I am too tired to walk any farther.
  • Further topics will be covered next week.
  • Please wait for further instructions.

Last – Latter- Latest

Last is the opposite of first, the latter is the opposite of the former and the latest means the most recent.

  • Read the first and last paragraphs today.
  • Of the two choices, I prefer the latter.
  • The last question was out of the syllabus.www.ssccglpinnacle.com
  • The former teacher was better.
  • The latest innovations were mind blowing.
  • What is the latest news from the border?

Late / lately

Late can be an adjective or an adverb that means after the correct time.

  • I’m not hungry because I had a late lunch. (adjective)
  • I was late for the exam.
  • He slept late and missed his first class. (adverb)
  • Lately is an adverb that means the same as recently.
  • I haven’t studied a lot lately.

Hard / hardly

Hard can be an adjective or an adverb.

  • This book is too hard for me. I can’t read it. (hard is an adjective meaning difficult)
  • This mattress is too hard. I can’t sleep. (hard is an adjective meaning opposite of “soft”)
  • She’s working hard to finish the project by tomorrow. (hard is an adverb meaning working intensely)

Hardly has a completely different meaning. It means “almost not.”

  • We have a bad connection, I can hardly hear you. ( I almost can’t hear you)

Nearest/Next

Nearest is closest in distance. Next means the next in order.

Examples-

  • The next six months will be the hardest to survive.
  • The next chapter is a very simple one.
  • Who’s is next in the queue?
  • The week after next.

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RULES FOR QUESTION TAG ALONG WITH EXERCISE

RULES FOR QUESTION TAG ALONG WITH EXERCISE

What is a tag question?
A tag question is a statement followed by a small-question. We use tag questions to ask for confirmation.In a tag question a statement is made and a question is asked after that.
For an example-
a) You are busy, Arent’t you?
b) Pinnacle is the best institute for preparing for government jobs, isn’t it?

Four basic rules have to be kept in mind while making question tags-

1 The sentence and the question tag will be in the same tense.
2 If the sentence is an affirmative sentence, the question tag will be negative.
If the sentence is a negative sentence the question tag will be positive.
3 The pronoun is always used in the question tag.
4 In negative question tags we use the contracted form of the helping verb and not Eg- Hasn’t , couldn’t etc.

Rules & Explanations along with Application / Examples.

RULE 1. In affirmative sentence the Tag question will be negative.
Examples -a. A good student always works hard, doesn’t he?
b. A teacher goes to school daily, doesn’t he?
c. Madhu plucks flowers, doesn’t she?
d.You appeared at the SSC examination, didn’t you?
e. Helmet makes driving safe, isn’t it?

RULE 2. In Negative Sentence the Tag question will be Positive.
Examples – a. All the children were not present, were they?
b. Everybody cannot be clever, can they?

RULE 3. For sentences having modal Auxiliary (can, could, will, would, may, might, must, shall, should, ought to, need, would rather, had better, dare) Tags will be shalln’t , shan’t, will not, won’t , can’t etc depending on whet ether positive or negative is needed.
Examples a. A healthy body can achieve the impossible, can’t it?
b. A student must be regular in studies, musn’t he?
c. Everybody cannot drive, can they?
d. Everbody should wear a seat belt while driving , shouldn’t they?
e. Water animals can breathe under water, can’t they?

RULES FOR QUESTION TAG ALONG WITH EXERCISE
RULE 4. Everybody, everyone , no one, no body are singular. So we use a singular verb and singular pronoun with them. But in the question tag a plural verb and a plural pronoun will be used.
Examples – a. Everybody has to pay his own bill, Haven’t they?
b. None of your friends has arrived yet, Have they?

RULE 5. For Affirmative Imperative sentence we use will you or won’t you in the question tag.
Examples –a. Be assured of all co-operation, will you?
b. Switch on the cooler, will you?
c. Please give me the documents ,wont you?
d. Kindly take a seat, will you?

RULE 6. For Negative Imperative sentence we use will you as the question tag.
Examples –a. Don’t touch the wire, will you?
b. Don’t litter here, will you?
c. Don’t make a noise in the class, will you?

RULE 7. For Imperative sentences beginning with let us , when a suggestion or proposal is being made the question tag will be shall we.
Examples –a. Let us go for a movie ,shall we?
b. Let us help her to complete the work , shall we?
c. Let us go to meet her, shall we?

RULE 8. For Imperative sentences beginning with let but not followed by us , the question tag will be will you.
Examples –a.Let Madhu go, will you?
b. Let them do their homework, will you?
c.Let the labourer go, will you?

RULE 9. For imperative sentences having nothing, anything, everything, something as the subject the question tag will have it as the pronoun.
Examples –a. Everything has gone bad today, hasn’t it?
b. Everything is clear, isn’t it?
c. Nothing can revive this worse situation, can it?
d. Nothing comes from nothing, does it?

RULE 10. If any sentence has used to in it then the question tag will be usedn’t/didn’t.
Examples – a. He used to come here,usedn’t he?
b. He used to play the casio very well,didn’t he?

Question Tag

RULE 11. Never, no, nobody, hardly, seldom, scarcely, few, little, not ,none ,rarely etc. are negative words. So the question tag will not be negative.
Examples – a. A barking dog seldom bites, does it?
b. My son never stands still, does it?
c. He hardly came here, did he?
d. He hardly does his duties, does he?

RULE 12. In exclamatory sentences the question tag will contain the auxiliary verbs.
Examples – a. How beautiful the garden is, isn’t it?
b. How big the slide is, isn’t it?
c. How nicely the bird sings, isn’t it?

RULE 13. Moon, earth, river, motherland, country, ship, train are treated as feminine gender. In the tag question the Pronoun used will be “she”.
Examples – a) The Titanic was thought to be unsinkable, wasn’t she?
b) India has never attacked any country, has she?

RULE 14. There is no contracted form of am not. So in question tags aren’t is used.
Examples – a. I am a little late today, aren’t I?
b. I am confident, aren’t I?
Note : But if the question tag to be used is not in contracted form then ‘Am I’ can be used.
Examples – a. I am late today, Am I?
b. I am not busy, Am I?

RULE 15. If the subject of a sentence is there/one/this/that/these/those then the question tag will contain there/one/this etc as the pronoun.
Examples – a. There is a book on the table, Isn’t there?
b. One cannot find a solution to this problem, Can one?

RULE 16. Collective nouns are used in singular forms so the question tag will have a singular verb and a singular pronoun.
Examples – a. The class has selected its monitor, hasn’t it?
b. The team has played very well, hasn’t it?

But if the collective noun is not treated as one unit, we use the plural verb and the plural pronoun.
Example – The team have to arrange for their own shoes , haven’t they?

Fill in the blanks with the correct question tag.

Q1. It’ll rain soon, ………………………..

(A) won’t it

(B) bought it

(C) isn’t it

(D) may it

Q2. They needn’t worry ………………………..?

(A) isn’t it

(B) doesn’t it

(C) don’t it

(D) need they

Q3. None of the food was wasted ,…………………….?

(A)wasn’t

(B) was it

(C) weren’t

(D) were it

Q4. The hotel was not too expensive …………………………..

(A)was it?

(B) wasn’t it?

(C) is it ?

(D) isn’t it?

Q5. Your father used to be the principal of this college, ……………………………

(A)did he?

(B) does he ?

(C) didn’t he?

(D) doesn’t he?

RULES FOR QUESTION TAG ALONG WITH EXERCISE
Q6. I am very happy today,………………

(A) Arent’t I

(B) Are I

(C) Am I

(D) Are not I

Q7. They fought bravely for the freedom of the country………………..

(A) did not they

(B) don’t they

(C) didn’t they

(D) does he

Q8. The mob has killed the thief,………………………..

(A) haven’t it

(B) hasn’t it

(C) has it

(D) isn’t it

Q9. Somebody has paid the bill for you……………………

(A) haven’t they

(B) is it

(C) Have they

(D) Haven’t they

Q10. I didn’t go for the classes yesterday ,………………………..

(A) didn’t I

(B) did I

(C) Do I

(D) Isn’t it

 

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English Grammar Rules for QUESTION TAG

English Grammar Rules for QUESTION TAG

What is a tag question?

A tag question is a statement followed by a small-question. We use tag questions to ask for confirmation. In a tag question a statement is made and a question is asked after that.

For an example-

  1. a) You are busy, Aren’t you?
  2. b) Pinnacle is the best institute for preparing for government jobs, isn’t it?

Four basic rules have to be kept in mind while making question tags-

1  The sentence and the question tag will be in the same tense.

2  If the sentence is an affirmative sentence, the question tag will be negative.

If the sentence is a negative sentence the question tag will be positive.

3  The pronoun is always used in the question tag.

4  In negative question tags we use the contracted form of the helping verb and not Eg- Hasn’t , couldn’t etc.

Rules & Explanations  along with Application / Examples.

RULE 1  In affirmative sentence the Tag question will be negative.

Examples –

A teacher goes to school daily, doesn’t he?

Madhu plucks flowers, doesn’t she?

You appeared at the SSC examination, didn’t you?

Helmet makes driving safe, doesn’t it?

RULE 2  In Negative Sentence the Tag question will be Positive.

Examples – All the children were not present, were they?

Dogs cannot fly, can they?

Everybody cannot be clever, can they?

RULE 3   For sentences having modal Auxiliary (can, could, will, would, may, might, must, shall, should, ought to, need, would rather, had better, dare) Tags will be shall n’t , will not,  won’t , can’t etc depending on whether positive or negative is needed.

Examples: A healthy body can achieve the impossible, can’t it?

A student should be regular in studies, shouldn’t he?

Everybody cannot drive, can they?

Everbody should wear a seat belt while driving , shouldn’t they?

Water animals can breathe under water, can’t they?

RULE 4  Everybody, everyone ,  no one, no body are singular. So we use a singular verb and singular pronoun with them. But in the question tag a plural verb and a plural pronoun will be used.

Examples – Everybody has to pay his own bill, Haven’t they?

None of your friends has arrived yet, Have they?

RULE 5   For Affirmative Imperative sentence we use will you or won’t you in the question tag.

Examples –Be assured of all co-operation, will you?

Switch on the cooler, will you?

Please give me the documents ,wont you?

Kindly take a seat, will you?

RULE 6 For Negative Imperative sentence we use will you as the question tag.

Examples – Don’t touch the wire, will you?

Don’t litter here, will you?

Don’t make a noise in the class, will you?

RULE 7  For Imperative sentences beginning with let us , when a suggestion or proposal is being made the question tag will be shall we.

Examples –Let us go for a movie ,shall we?

Let us help her to complete the work , shall we?

Let us go to meet her, shall we?

RULE 8 For Imperative sentences beginning with let but not followed by us , the question tag will be will you.

Examples –Let Madhu go, will you?

Let them do their homework, will you?

Let the labourer go, will you?

English Grammar Rules for QUESTION TAG
RULE 9  For imperative sentences having nothing, anything, everything, something as the subject the question tag will have it as the pronoun.

Examples – Everything has gone bad today, hasn’t it?

Everything is clear, isn’t it?

Nothing can revive this worse situation, can it?

RULE  10   If any sentence has used to in it then the question tag will be usedn’t/didn’t.

Examples –  He used to come here, usedn’t he?

He used to play the guitar very well, didn’t he?

RULE 11   Never, no, nobody, hardly, seldom, scarcely, few, little, not ,none ,rarely etc. are negative words. So the question tag will not be negative.

Examples –  A barking dog seldom bites, does it?

My son never stands still, does it?

He hardly does his duties, does he?

RULE 12  In exclamatory sentences the question tag will contain the auxiliary verbs.

Examples – How beautiful the garden is, isn’t it?

How big the slide is, isn’t it?

How nicely the bird sings, isn’t it?

RULE 13  Moon, earth, river, motherland, country, ship, train are treated as feminine gender. In the tag question the Pronoun used will be “she”. Instead of she ‘ it’ can also be used.

Examples – The Titanic was thought to be unsinkable, wasn’t she?

India has never attacked any country, has she?

RULE 14    There is no contracted form of am not. So in question tags aren’t is used.

Examples –   I am a little late today, aren’t I?

I am confident, aren’t I?

Note : But if the question tag to be used is not in contracted form then ‘Am I’ can be used.

Examples –   I am not late today, Am I?

I am not busy, Am I?

English Grammar Rules for QUESTION TAG

English Grammar Rules for QUESTION TAG

RULE 15   If the subject of a sentence is there/one/this/that/these/those then the question tag will contain there/one/this etc as the pronoun.

Examples –  There is a book on the table, Isn’t there?

One cannot find a solution to this problem, Can one?

RULE 16  Collective nouns are used in singular forms so the question tag will have a singular verb and a singular pronoun.

Examples –   The class has selected its monitor, hasn’t it?

The team has played very well, hasn’t it?

But if the collective noun is not treated as one unit, we use the plural verb and the plural pronoun.

Example – The team have to arrange for their own shoes , haven’t they?

GIVE THE CORRECT QUESTION TAG FOR THE FOLLOWING

  1. Cricket is more popular today, __________?
  2. Every action has an opposite reaction,______?
  3. I am a student of Pinnacle, _______?
  4. I had a bad headache yesterday, __________?
  5. It is an important matter, __________?
  6. I am happy, _______?
  7. The jury gave different opinions, _______?
  8. The kid is crying, _______?
  9. It was a terrible accident, __________?
  10. We must eat vegetables, _______?
  11. Love the poor, _______?
  12. I am taking tea, _______?
  13. We should love country, _______?
  14. Everything was alright, __________?
  15. We were warned of the danger, _______?
  16. I am innocent, _______?
  17. Neither of them were responsible, __________?
  18. Man is mortal, _______?
  19. I am tired, _______?
  20. Either you or your brother came here, __________?
  21. Frankel cast his magic spell in the laboratory, _____?
  22. Nobody cheated on the exam, ________?
  23. Ice touches cold, _______?
  24. Nobody dared to do it ________?
  25. It is an important matter, _______?
  26. Nobody believes you, ________?
  27. Somebody will say so, ________?
  28. It hardly rains during the dry ________?
  29. There are many mistakes in his composition,________?
  30. It is easy to say, _______?
  31. There are some problems here, ________?
  32. There is a little water in the pot, ________?
  33. It is quite a big garden, _______?
  34. There are six seasons in Bangladesh, ________?
  35. There has been an accident, ________?
  36. She needs to buy a pen, _______?
  37. Nobody believes a liar, ________?
  38. One of the legs of the table has been broken, ___?
  39. She has been fasting, __________?
  40. The poor are born to suffer, __________?
  41. Someone went there, _______?
  42. Sultan thanked the Quazi, _______?
  43. Nobody called me, ________?
  44. Nobody came, ________?
  45. Hasan earned very little money, __________?
  46. The baby is innocent, _______?
  47. To err is human __________?
  48. We had better discuss something else, __________?
  49. The baby is playing, _______?
  50. It was a good tiffin, _______?
  51. Grandmother can tell good stories, __________?
  52. Nothing is impossible in this world, __________?
  53. The book is rare now, _______?
  54. The fishermen catch fishes, _______?
  55. She is happy, _______?
  56. She does not like bad films, __________?
  57. She has never visited the TajMahal, __________?
  58. You are not my friend, __________?
  59. He sat by me, __________?
  60. Kindly do me a favour, __________?
  61. Let a sleeping dog sleep, __________?
  62. Let her come in, __________?
  63. She is pretty, _______?
  64. Tareq came from Gazipur, _______?
  65. Nothing can satisfy him, __________?
  66. Hasan put the book on his reading table, _______?
  67. You need not depend on others, __________?
  68. Blind men cannot see anything, __________?
  69. We should love country, __________?
  70. You dare not drive at night, __________?
  71. You must do it, __________?
  72. Blind men can’t read, __________?
  73. Don’t boil rice, __________?
  74. Get out, __________?
  75. Give me a glass of water, __________?
  76. Let us go home, __________?
  77. Let us go out for a walk, __________?
  78. Let us have a cup of tea, __________?
  79. Nothing can concern you, ________?
  80. He has a few friends, ________?
  81. Don’t bother him, __________?
  82. He has little idea about it, ________?
  83. Nothing can help you now, ________?
  84. Close the window, __________?
  85. Come and see me again, __________?
  86. Do sit down, __________?
  87. There is little water in the jar, ________?
  88. Don’t be late, __________?
  89. My friends and I hardly go there, ________?
  90. My friends and I hardly go there, ________?
  91. My friends hardly come here, ________?
  92. He hardly realizes it, ________?
  93. How sweetly the bird sings, ________?
  94. He hardly studies, ________?
  95. Grandmother can tell good stories, ________?
  96. Her mother couldn’t walk,________?
  97. Laila knows you, ________?
  98. How nicely she writes, ________?
  99. Pinnacle conducts classes early in the morning________?
  100. We are your well wishers________?

Fill in the blanks with the correct question tag.

1  It’ll rain soon, ………………………..

(A) won’t it

(B) bought it

(3) isn’t it

(4) may it

2 They needn’t worry ………………………..?

(A) isn’t it

(B) doesn’t it

(C) don’t it

(D) need they

3 None of the food was wasted ,…………………….?

(A)wasn’t

(B) was it

(C) weren’t

(D) were it

4  The hotel was not too expensive …………………………..

(A)was it?

(B) wasn’t it?

(C) is it ?

(D) isn’t it?

5 Your father used to be the principal of this college, ……………………………

(A)did he?

(B) does he ?

(C) didn’t he?

(D) doesn’t he?

6  I am very happy today,………………

(A) Arent’t I

(B) Are I

(C) Am I

(D) Are not I

7  They fought bravely for the freedom of the country………………..

(A) did not they

(B) don’t they

(B) didn’t they

(D) does he

8 The mob has killed the thief,………………………..

(A) haven’t it

(B) hasn’t it

(C) has it

(D) isn’t it

9  Somebody has paid the bill for you……………………

(A) haven’t they

(B) is it

(C) Have they

(D) Haven’t they

10  I didn’t go for the classes yesterday ,………………………..

(A) didn’t I

English Grammar Rules for QUESTION TAG

(B) did I

(C) Do I

(D) Isn’t it

 

 

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SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT

SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT

In English, the verb must agree with its subject in number and person. In other words, the verb must be of the same number and person as the subject. Subjects and verbs must agree in number. This is the main rule that forms the background of the concept.

RULE 1

Subjects don’t always come before verbs in questions. Make sure you accurately identify the subject before deciding on the proper verb form to use.

Eg   Where are the pieces of this puzzle? (The subject is not this puzzle but it is the pieces of this puzzle so the subject is plural)

The study of languages and sciences is very important for your study.  (The subject is not languages and sciences but it is study.)

 RULE 2

When two singular nouns are connected by and the verb used will be plural.

Eg   The boy and the girl are waiting outside the school.

Important note

A) But when the two nouns connected by and together represent the same person, same thing or same idea the verb used will be singular.

Eg   The principal and science teacher has not come to the school today. (Here the principal is also the science teacher)

B) If two different singular nouns express one idea, the verb should be in the singular form. Or the two singular nouns/uncountable nouns are used in pairs then the verb used will be singular.

The law and order situation in the state are under control  ✘

The law and order situation in the state is under control  ✔

Profit and loss is a part of business. (Profit and loss goes in pairs so a singular verb (is)

Hard work and luck takes one to success.

RULE 3

‘Unlike’, no less than’, ‘nothing but’ ‘As well as’, ‘with’, ‘alongwith’, ‘together with’, ‘and not’, ‘In  addition to’, ‘but’, ‘besides’, ‘except’, ‘rather than’, ‘accompained by’, ‘like’ If these words are the connecting words that join two subjects then the verb used will be according to the first subject.

(1) My sister unlike my brothers wishes to have a career in engineering.

(2) The actress, along with her manager and some friends, are invited to the function 

   The actress, along with her manager and some friends, is invited to the function 

RULE 4

When two or more  Subjects are connected by or, nor, either … or, neither … nor, the Verb is according to the subject that falls close to the verb.

Examples:

1     Either James or John are to be promoted  (incorrect)

Either James or John is to be promoted (correct)

2     Neither the girls nor he are to take up this task (incorrect)

Neither you nor he is to take up this task (correct)

3     Either the Chief Minister or the Cabinet Ministers is responsible for this problem. (incorrect)

Either the Chief Minister or the Cabinet Ministers are responsible for this problem. (Correct)

4     Either you or I are responsible for this mistake. (Incorrect)

Either you or I am responsible for this mistake. (Correct)

SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT

RULE 5

Usage of either,neither,none etc.

  • ‘Neither of……’ It is only used in case of two things or persons and not one of the two.

Neither of his five sons settled in India. (incorrect)

None of his four sons looked after him. (correct)

  • ‘Either of……”It means the choice is between two persons and things and one of the two.

Either of the three children has broken the window. (incorrect)

  • One of……….. It is used to select one out of something that has more than two.

One of the six boys admitted before the principal that they had all cheated in the exam.(correct)

  • ‘Both’/‘not’

We do not use both and not in the same sentence. If we wish to state that out of the two thing not even one of them then use neither of.

Both of the girls did not reach the examination centre on time. (incorrect)

Neither of the girls reached the examination centre on time. (correct)

RULE 6

SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT

SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT

When ‘not only ……. but also’ is used to combine two subject, the verb agrees with the subject close to it.

Examples:

Not only silver, but also gold are mined in this country  ✘

Not only silver, but also gold is mined in this country  ✔

RULE 7

When two nouns joined by and have their own articles then we consider them as plural and plural verb is used.

Examples:

The director and the producer is shooting in Himachal. (✘)

The director and the producer are shooting in Himachal. (✔)

But when two nouns joined by and do not have their own articles then we consider them as singular and singular verb is used. The article is used only before the first noun.

Examples:

The principal and director of the school is on leave for three days.

A large and comfortable chair is needed in my study.

 

A black and a white cat —– means two cats.

A black and white cat ——–only one cat with both colours black and white.

RULE 8

Majority can be singular or plural. If it is alone it is usually singular, if it is followed by a plural noun, it is usually plural.

The majority believe that the country can progress  ✘

The majority believes that the country can progress  ✔

The majority of the lecturers believes that the student has not copied in the examination  ✘

The majority of the lecturers believe that the student has not copied in the examination  ✔

RULE 9

Collective nouns

Many words indicating a number of people or animals are singular. The following nouns are usually singular. Examples of collective nouns

Family, group, committee, class, organisation, team, army, club, crowd, government, jury, minority, public

Examples :

The committee have met and accepted the proposal ✘

The committee has met and accepted the proposal ✔

The family were happy at the news ✘

The family was happy at the news ✔

The crowd was wild with excitement ✔

Congress has initiated a new plan to combat inflation ✔

Our team is certain to win the match ✔

The family living next door often quarrel among themselves ✔

Note:

A collective noun is treated as plural when the group it names is considered to be made up of individuals. Because members of the group can act on their own, the word is considered plural.

The play’s cast are rehearsing their lines.

The plural subject cast requires the plural verb are because the members of the cast are functioning as individual people doing separate things.

The jury often have different reactions to the evidence they hear.

The plural subject jury requires the plural verb have because the members of the jury are being considered as individuals.

RULE 10

Generally with a plural number we use a plural verb.

But or nouns indicating a specific time, money, and measurements (weight , distance and height)  used as a whole are singular and take a singular verb.

Examples:

Twenty-five rupees are not such big amount for him ✘

Twenty-five rupees is not such big amount for him ✔

Two miles are too much for this man to run ✘

Two miles is too much for this man to run ✔

But when they are not used as a whole and are further subdivided into smaller units we use a plural verb.

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Note the difference-

  • Twenty thousand a handsome salary. (Treated as a singular unit)
  • Twenty thousand been spent on different useful commodities such as rent , grocery, fees etc.

RULE 11

When a lot of , a great deal of, plenty of, most of, and some of refer to number (countable noun) , a plural verb is used.

Examples:

A lot of people was present in the gallery some of the students were absent ✘

A lot of people were present in the gallery some of the students were absent ✔

Note : If these expressions refer to an amount (Uncountable noun) , the verb is in the singular number.

A lot of work has to be completed before we go ✔

A great deal of work has been finished ✔

RULE 12

Names of countries are always singular. Certain names like West indies and United States may seem to be plural as they end in s but they are singular. But in sports, while referring to the players, the name of the country is followed by plural verb. Examples:

England has won the World Cup ✘

England have won the World Cup. ✔

RULE 13

When the ‘enemy’ is used in the sense “armed forces” of a nation with which one’s country is at war, we have to use the plural verb. www.ssccglpinnacle.com

Example :The enemy were forced to retreat.

RULE 14

Structure: none + of the + non-count noun + singular verb

Examples:

None of the counterfeit money have been found ✘

None of the counterfeit money has been found ✔

Structure: none + of the + plural count noun + plural verb

Examples:

None of the students has finished the exam yet ✘

None of the students have finished the exam yet ✔

No can take either a singular or plural verb depending on the noun which follows it.

Structure: No + singular noun + singular verb

No example is relevant to this case ✔

Structure: No + plural noun + plural verb

No examples are relevant to this case ✔

RULE 15

A number of / the number

Observe the two structures:

(i) a number of + plural noun + plural verb.

(ii) the number of + plural noun + singular verb.

Examples:

A number of students is going to the class picnic ✘

A number of students are going to the class picnic ✔

The number of days in a week are seven ✘

The number of days in a week is seven ✔

The number of residents who have been residing in this colony is quite small ✔

A number of the applicants have already been interviewed ✔

RULE 16

Relative pronouns

Sometimes the pronoun who, that, or which is the subject of a verb in the middle of the sentence. The pronouns who, that, and which become singular or plural according to the noun directly in front of them. So, if that noun is singular, use a singular verb. If it is plural, use a plural verb.”

The verb should not be chosen according to the subject of the sentence.

Example:

“He is one of the men who do the work.

The word in front of who is men, which is plural. Therefore, use the plural verb do.”

RULE 17

The word were replaces was in sentences that express a wish or are contrary to fact:

Example: If the teacher were here, you’d have to pay.

The teacher is singular so it should be followed by was. But the teacher isn’t actually here, so we say were, not was. The sentence shows things that are hypothetical, wishful, imaginary, or factually contradictory. In such sentences we use were.

Examples:

I wish it were Friday.

RULE 18

The following are considered as singular.

Each, Every, Everyone, Someone, Somebody, Nobody, None, One, Any, Many a, More than one are treated as singular. We use a singular verb, singular pronoun and singular noun with them.

Examples

(1)  Each students from Pinnacle has cleared the exam.

(2)  Each boy and each girl has to finish his work by the weekend..

(3)  More than one  present there.

(4) Each man and each woman was garlanded by the host.

The word many can be used in the following ways.

1   Many a students is standing in the canteen .

Although the word preceding the verb ‘is’ is plural in nature, the correct verb is singular one ‘is’, because of the presence of ‘many a’. www.ssccglpinnacle.com

Many a will be followed by the singular noun and a singular verb will be used.

2    Many students were standing in the canteen.

3    A great many students were standing in the canteen.

Note : But if each, every, one is followed by of then the word of will be followed by a plural noun/pronoun. But the verb and pronoun used in the sentence will be singular.

One of the girls/them has made a card for her teacher.

SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT
Indefinite Pronoun –

If ‘One’ is the subject of the sentence then the pronouns used will be one’s/oneself etc. Do not use him/himself

(1)  One should complete his work in time. (Incorrect)

(2)   One should keep one’s promise. (Correct)

RULE 19

In optative sentences the verb used is always plural irrespective of the subject. Even with singular subjects we use a plural verb.

Examples.

1)  God save the world!

2)  Long live our prime minister!

3)  May he achieve success.

 

RULE 20

Amount of/ quantity of + Uncountable Noun  the verb used will be singular.

(1)   The amount of sugar are not sufficient to prepare a cup of tea.  (Incorrect)

(2)   The amount of money is not sufficient (Correct)

RULE 17

All can be treated as both singular and plural.

When it refers to persons or things it is treated as plural or else it is treated as singular.

RULE 18

  • Furniture, advice, work, evidence, equipment, news, information, luggage, baggage, percentage, poetry, knowledge, dirt, dust, traffic, electricity, music, breakage, stationary, scenery, confectionery, pottery, bakery, crockery, behaviour areuncountable
  • So we use a singular verb with them.

(1)   The of Kashmirenchanted us.

(2)   I passed but the of marks not good.

RULE 19

 

Headphones , knickers , premises (buildings) , Alms , ruins, amends , archives , arrears, auspices, congratulations, embers , fireworks, lodgings, outskirts, particulars, proceeds, regards, riches, remains, savings, shambles, surroundings, tidings, furnishings, earnings, leftovers, troops, tactics, thanks, valuables, forceps, wages, belongings, braces,  Scissors, tongs ,pliers, pincers, bellows trousers, pants, pajamas, shorts , gallows , fangs spectacles, goggles, binoculars , eyeglasses .

 

These nouns are always plural and a plural verb is used with them.

Examples

These scissors are for cutting paper.

Your clothes are dirty.

Have you seen my glasses? I want to read the newspaper.

What kind of goods does your company produce?

The table of contents should not contain any pictures.

I ran up the stairs and tore the door open.

The police used firearms to disperse the crowd.

I live on the outskirts of the city.

 

Some of these nouns are often used with the expression a pair of, as they refer to things made up of two parts:

 

a pair of trousers

a pair of jeans

a pair of shoes

a pair of slippers

a pair of glasses

a pair of gloves

a pair of earrings

 

Note : With a pair of ……. A singular verb will be used.

A pair of trousers was lying on the bed.

 

RULE 20

 

These nouns appear to be plural but are actually singular and we use a singular verb with them.

 

News, Innings, Politics, Summons, linguistics.

Names of subjects ending in s.

Examples -Physics, Economics, Ethics, Mathematics,

 

Names of diseases ending in s.

Examples – Mumps, Measles, Rickets Shingles, Billiards, Athletics etc

Examples

Athletics is good for young people.

Linguistics is the study of language.

Darts is a popular game in England.

Billiards is played all over the world.

 

RULE 21

 

These nouns appear as singular but are plural and a plural verb is used with them.

Cattle, cavalry, infantry, poultry, peasantry, children , gentry, police, people, etc.

 

RULE 22

 

These noun are used in singular form only and they are uncountable form only.

Scenery, Poetry, Furniture, Advice, Information, Hair, Business, Mischief, Bread, Stationery, Crockery, Luggage, Baggage, Postage, Knowledge, Wastage, Money, Jewellery, Breakage, Equipment, Work, Evidence, Word ,Fuel .

 

We cannot use a/an with these nouns immediately before them. To express a quantity of an uncountable noun, use a word or expression like some, a lot of, much, a bit of, a great deal of.

 

Examples.

There has been a lot of research into the causes of this disease.

He gave me a great deal of advice before my interview.

Can you give me some information about uncountable nouns?

He did not have much sugar left.

A lot of wonderful jewellery were available in the shop.

A piece of jewellery is here for you.

Note: The verb used varies as per the usage of the noun.

 

Rule 23

Hair: Be careful with the noun hair which is normally uncountable in English, so it is not use in the plural. It can be countable only when referring to individual hairs.

Example : She has long thick hair.

Two strands of grey hair were found by the police in the car.

 

Paper: When paper refers to exams it is countable otherwise it is singular.

A lot of paper is use by newspapers.

I have to answer two English papers in May.

 

RULE 24

Deer, sheep, series, species, fish, crew, team, jury, aircraft, counsel etc. These words are in the same form in singular and plural.

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SSC One word substitutions :  Pertaining to Government / literary arts

SSC One word substitutions

Pertaining to Government

  1. To give up throne or other office of dignity : Abdicate
  2. A diplomatic minister of the highest order sent by one country to another : Ambassador
  3. Absence of government : Anarchy
  4. A person who is out to destroy all government and order : Anarchist
  5. Government by one : Autocracy/Despotism
  6. Government by the officials/ departments of state : Bureaucracy
  7. Government by the nobles : Aristocracy
  8. The right of self government : Autonomy
  9. Government of the people, for the people, by the people : Democracy
  10. Government by the king or queen : Monarchy
  11. Government by a few : Oligarchy
  12. Government by the rich : Plutocracy
  13. The science of government : Politics
  14. To decide a political question by the direct vote of the whole electorate : Referendum
  15. A person(s) who takes up arms against the government : Rebel
  16. Too much official formality:  Red Tapism
  17. Sweeping governmental change : Revolution
  18. Government by divine guidance : Theocracy
  19. Part of the government which preserves law and order and carries out the laws made  : Executive

Pertaining to the Literary Arts

  1. A work whose writer is unknown Anonymous
  2. A record of one’s life written by himself Autobiography
  3. The history of the life of a person Biography
  4. A humorous play, having a happy ending Comedy
  5. A list of books in a library Catalogue
  6. A book in which the events of each day are recorded Diary
  7. The heading or short description of a newspaper article, chapter of a book Caption
  8. A book containing the words of a language with their definitions, in alphabetical order Dictionary
  9. A book of names and address Directory
  10. A short speech by a player at the end of a play Epilogue
  11. A brief summary of a book Epitome
  12. A book containing information on all branches of knowledge Encyclopedia
  13. To remove the offensive portion of a book Expurgate
  14. A speech delivered without earlier preparation Extempore
  15. A noisy or vehement speech intended to excite passions Harangue
  16. A written account, usually in book form of the interesting and memorable experience of one’s life Memoir
  17. A declaration of plans and promises put forward by a candidate for Election, a political party or a Sovereign Manifesto
  18. A short speech by a player at the beginning of a play Prologue

One word substitutions Literary Arts

  1. Literary theft, or passing off an author’s original work as one’s own Plagiarism
  2. A writer who borrows words and ideas from another author Plagiarist
  3. A statement open to more than one interpretation Ambiguous
  4. One who cannot read or write Illiterate
  5. One who does not care for literature and art Philistine
  6. The first speech delivered by a person Maiden
  7. A word or law no longer in use Obsolete
  8. A person very reserved in speech Reticent
  9. A style full of words Verbose
  10. Incapable of being described adequately Indescribable
  11. Speaking one’s thoughts aloud to oneself Soliloquizing
  12. A play with a sad or tragic end Tragedy
  13. Something that can’t be read Illegible
  14. One who is a great lover of books Bibliophile
  15. A person who is especially competent to pass judgments in an art, particularly one of the fine arts, or in matters of taste : Connoisseur

Maths Number System
 

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Rules for articles (A/An/The)

Rules for articles (A/An/The)

Rules for articles (A/An/The) with practice exercise.

An article is a word or a letter which is used before noun and tells about the certainty of that noun”.

There are two types of articles :

(i) Indefinite articles: A, AN

(ii) Definite article: The

(i) A or AN is called the Indefinite Article because it mentions an indefinite person or thing.

Example:

(a)A boy means any boy.

(b) A teacher means any teacher.

For example, if I say, “Let’s read the book,” I mean a specific book. If I say, “Let’s read a book,” I mean any book rather than a specific book.

Rules to Use article “A/An”

1. जब हम किसी शब्द को बोलते हैं तो हमे यह देखना है की बोलते समय पहली धवनि किस शब्द की आ रही है अगर वह धवनि (अ आ इ ई …….औ ) में से है तो an का प्रयोग होगा, और अगर धवनि (क ख ग …….) की है तो a का प्रयोग करें )

For an example-

An MLA .Although MLA begins with M but while we pronounce it the sound is of (ए).You may also write in hindi and see it will be written as एम एल ए while checking out the first sound we find a vowel sound there so an will be used. Similar is the case with an MA degree, an SP, an LLB degree etc.

2. ‘A’ is used before some indefinite numbers.

Example:. (a) A lot of (b) a number of (c) a great deal of (d) a half of a large number of (e) a quarter of

3. ‘A’ can be used before some indefinite collective numbers.

Example:

(a) a team of (b) a gang of (c) a flock of (d) a herd of (e) a swarm of (f) a panel of (g) a bunch of

4.If an adjective is followed by a singular noun, we use ‘A’ before that adjective.

Example:

(a) Shravya is beautiful(Adjective) girl(noun)—wrong;

(b) Shravya is a beautiful girl —correct

5. ‘A’ is used instead of ‘per”.

(a) Petrol is sold at Rs. twenty-five a litre.

(b) Apples are sold at sixty rupees a kg.

6. To show the whole class of common noun we can use ‘A’ before a common noun.

Example: (a) A bird has two wings.

(b) A monkey have a tail.

Exception: But, common noun like Man and Woman used to represent the human race do not follow the above rule.

Example: (a) A man is mortal.—wrong

(b) Man is mortal. —correct

(c) Woman is more emotional than man. (correct)

7. Note that in English, the indefinite articles are used to indicate membership in a profession, nationality status, or religion.

(a)  I am a teacher.

(b)  Brian is an Irishman.

(c) Seiko is a practicing Buddhist.

(d) He is a doctor.

8. If we put article ‘A’ before plural number the forthcoming noun becomes singular.

Example: (a) A five day match. (b) A ten mile walk. (c) A fifteen man committee.

Example: (a) Five days match. (b) Ten miles walk. (c) Fifteen men committee.

Rules for articles (A/An/The)
9. ‘A‘ is used before these words because they have the sound of consonant in their first letters.

Example: (a) A university. (b) A union. (c) A unique film.(d) A European. (e) A one-rupee note.  (f) A one-eyed person. (g) A one-act play. (h) A one-sided decision.

10.If  singular noun is placed after many, such, quite, rather, how etc., we use ‘A’ before that noun.

Example:

(a) I have never seen such girl in my life.—wrong;

I have never seen such a girl in my life.—correct

(b) Roma is quite dull girl.—wrong;

Roma is quite a dull girl.—correct

(c) It was such a silly statement.

11.If these words are used in singular, we use ‘A’ before them; Noise, Lie, Hole, Headache (words ending in ache), commotion etc.

Example:.

(a) The student makes noise in the class. —wrong.

The student makes a noise in the class.—correct

(b) Jonny always tells lie.—wrong;

Jonny always tells a lie.—correct

12. If the noun is modified by an adjective, the choice between a and an depends on the initial sound of the adjective that immediately follows the article:

(a) a broken egg  (b) an unusual problem (c) a European country

13. A/An is used in the following phrases.

In a minute, In a fix, in a hurry, in a nutshell, make a noise, make a foot, keep a secret, as a rule, at a stone’s throw, a short while ago, at a loss, take a fancy to, taken an interest in, take a liking, a pity, tell a lie.

14. A/An is not used in the following phrases.

To lose heart, to set foot, to give ear, at home, last but not least, to catch fire, in hand, set on fire, by car/ bus etc, at last, by mistake, in danger, to take heart.

15. A/An is used before a word which is generally used as a verb but is being used as a noun in a sentence.

(a) We drink water. (Verb)

He purchased a drink. (Noun)

(b) People fight over small issues. (Verb)

We witnessed a fight in the market. (Noun)

16. In exclamatory sentences beginning with what if singular countable noun is used then a/an will be used before the noun.

(a) What a beautiful day!

(b) What a tough question!

17.An article (a/an) is not used after kind of, sort of, type of, variety of.

(a) What variety of a mango is this? (incorrect)

(b) What variety of mango is this? (correct)

18. A/An is used in the vague sense of ‘a certain’ as-

A Ravi Sharma is suspected by the police.

(Ravi Sharma is a proper noun so it should not take an article but here it is referring to a certain person Ravi Sharma whom we don’t know which means the sense is vague and not clear.)

19. A is used with certain numbers. Eg a hundred, a thousand, a million etc.

A is more common than one before thousand, million, billion etc.

(a) There were a hundred rupees to be paid.
20 A is used before half when half  ; when half follows a whole number.

1 ½ kilos –  one and a half kilos or a kilo and a half. Here one is seen as a whole number.

But ½  kg or half a kilo. No a is to be used before half.

21 Omit a/an before uncountable nouns, such as sugar, music, gold, silver etc.

22 The expressions “a few” and “a little” mean “some” and express the idea that you have more than expected.

Examples:

He always carries a few dollars in case of an emergency..

He had a little difficulty with his homework but he managed somehow.

She has a few friends who can help her move.

HOWEVER: The expressions “few” and “little” (without an article) mean “not much” and express the idea that you have less than expected. (It is negative)

Examples:

Unfortunately, I had little time to enjoy in Mt Abu because I had to work so much.

Sadly, he has met very few interesting people in his life.

They have little money, so their daughter cannot pay for her trip.

USAGE OF THE

RULE 1

THE is called a definite article. “Definite” means “specific”. Use THE when talking about something which is already known to the listener or which has been previously mentioned, introduced, or discussed.

Examples: I have a cat. The cat is black.

There is a book in my backpack. The book is very heavy.

Do you know where I left the car keys? The listener knows which specific car keys you are talking about.

RULE 2

Use THE with superlatives such as “the best”, “the biggest”, “the most important”, “the least interesting”, etc.

Examples: This is the best day ever.

That is the most expensive hotel room I’ve ever heard of in my life.

He told the funniest story.

 

rules for articles

RULE 3

English speakers often use THE plus a singular noun when they talk about or make generalizations about certain topics, including:

  1. animals (the leopard, the elephant, the lowland gorilla)
  2. inventions (the steam engine, the plane, the light bulb)
  3. currencies (the dollar, the euro, the yen)
  4. body parts (the head, the eye, the ear)

Examples:

The Wright brothers invented the aeroplane.

Right now, the euro is stronger than the dollar.

Madhu got poked in the eye.

RULE 4

Generally, articles are not used with the names of illnesses or diseases.

Examples: Dr Veena visits schools and universities to educate students on cancer.

Oncologists are doctors who specialize in treating cancer.

There are several medications that can be used to treat malaria.

Exceptions: There are some illnesses which require THE. Example -the measles, the flu, the mumps, the  plague.

MOREOVER: There are a few health conditions or illnesses which can be used with both A(AN) as well as THE and follow general article use. This category includes most aches, pains, growths, and attacks.

Examples- a cold , a heart attack , a stroke , a tumor / growth / etc., a sore throat / sore back/ sore foot / etc.

a headache / toothache / backache / etc.

Examples: John has a cold. The cold was very bad.

Madhu had a heart attack. The heart attack seriously weakened her heart.

Mam had a sore throat. The sore throat made it hard to talk.

RULE 5

If a direction (north, west, southeast, left, right) directly follows a verb, do not use an article with the direction.

Examples: We need to walk south.

They drove north all day.

At the stop sign, turn left and walk three blocks.

HOWEVER: If a direction follows a preposition, you must use THE.

Examples: Our house is in the north.

The grocery store is on the right.

MOREOVER: Use THE when referring to a place as special geographic or cultural region.

Examples: We love the South.

Have you ever visited the East?

The West has better national parks.

Note – Do not confuse names of places with directions. Example- West Bengal is the name of a place and not a direction.

RULE 6

Article the is not used before names of persons.

Example Ram has topped the class.

Ravi is my brother.

We can use a/an before the names of persons whom we do not know. When we know the person we do not use a/an.

Example- Indu wants to talk to you.( The speaker and listener both know Indu)

There is a Ravi on the line who wants to talk to you.( Instead of a , some can also be used. Here the listener and the speaker are not aware of who Ravi is)

Sometimes we compare a person to some historical or other well known personality for certain specific traits. In such sentences a/an will be used.

Example – He is a Sachin (Means he plays cricket very well)

He is a Vishwanathan Anand (Means he plays chess very well)

His younger brother is a Lakshman.( Means he is very devoted to his elder brother)

But sometimes we wish to be more specific.

He is a Sachin.( Just a simple comparison so use a only)

He is the Sachin of our school cricket team.( Here it is clearly mentioned that he is the Sachin of our school cricket team. It becomes definite so ‘The’ will be used before Sachin)

Exceptions

THE can be used with plural family names to refer to the family as a group if it is a powerful and well recognized family.

Examples:

The Gandhis are very powerful in Indian politics.

The Bachchans are originally from Allahabad.

My brother lives next door to the Ambanis.

RULE 7

THE can be combined with certain adjectives to refer to a group of people such as “the blind”, “the elderly”, “the rich”, “the French”, “the powerful “, etc.

Examples: He is elderly. (Adjective)

The organization helps the elderly. (Elderly people)

REMEMBER: This is especially important in situations where nationalities or ethnic groups and their languages might be confused. In such situations, THE is used to specify that we are talking about the nationality or ethnic group rather than the language.

Examples: I like French. (Language)

I like the French. (The French people)

RULE 8

Do not use THE with the names of most countries unless the name contains a word such as “States”, “Kingdom”, “Republic”, “Emirates”, “Union”, “Coast”, etc.

Examples: I love Italy.

Madhu used to live in Japan.

He lives in the United States.

RULE 9

Use THE with the names of:

  1. oceans
  2. seas
  3. coasts
  4. rivers
  5. swamps
  6. archipelagos
  7. collections of lakes (such as the Great Lakes)
  8. mountain chains
  9. deserts
  10. references on the globe (such as the Equator, the North Pole)
  11. geographic regions (such as the Northwest, the Middle East)
  12. bridges (except Tower Bridge)
  13. pagodas
  14. hotels
  15. theaters
  16. museums
  17. institutes
  18. skyscrapers
  19. The earth,the world, the Sun, the Moon,the rain
  20. extraordinary works of art or architecture (such as the Great Wall of China, and the Taj Mahal)

Examples:

I would love to visit the North Pole.

Note : But if the name of a bridge, museum etc is after the name of a person or place we do not use the before it.

He met me at Lakshmi Bai Chowk.

I dropped him at Indira Gandhi International Airport.

I met him at the Mall road. (Here the road’s name is mall road which is not the name of a person so ‘The’ will be used.)

(Since the names of places have names of persons in them so article ‘The’will not be used.)

RULE 10

Do not use an article with:

  1. individual lakes
  2. individual islands
  3. beaches
  4. waterfalls
  5. individual mountains (Kanchenjunga)
  6. streets
  7. public squares
  8. hospitals
  9. stadiums
  10. malls
  11. parks
  12. churches
  13. temples
  14. universities
  15. colleges
  16. languages
  17. religions
  18. days of the week
  19. the months of the year
  20. holidays
  21. Names of meals
  22. Names of subjects
  23. Names of hobbies
  24. Names of games

HOWEVER: There are additional exceptions to some of the above categories. For example, THE is often used in the pattern “the … of …”.

Examples: The University of Delhi

The Temple of Tirupati

The Cathedral of Goa

RULE 11

THE  is used in some time expressions such as:

in the morning

in the afternoon

in the evening

during the night

during the day

the day before yesterday

the day after tomorrow

the fall

the summer

Examples: We’ll meet in the afternoon.

There was a small earthquake during the night.

Exception: In other time expressions, no article is used:

at night

at noon

at midnight

all day

all month

every month

every year

last night

last Friday

yesterday

tomorrow

Examples:

Did you sleep well last night?

I’ll see you tomorrow.

We are meeting for lunch at noon.

RULE 12

When a thing or group of things is unique we use the article the before it.

Example-

The earth, the sky , the sun , the equator , the rainbow, the universe, the pole star, the north pole etc.

RULE 13

Before a noun which the speaker and the listener are both aware of .

Example-

Please pass me the knife.

Let us go to the park.

Open the book and do the exercise.

RULE 14

Before a noun which has become definite as a result of being mentioned for the second time.

Example –

His car hit against a wall. The scratches are still visible on the car. (The same car has been mentioned for the second time so it has become definite.)

RULE 15

Article the is used before ordinals.(First, second, third ,fourth …………etc are ordinals)

Example –

The fifth chapter is about ordinals.

The seventh table is reserved.

Note 1: If next or last is used before time expression such as month , Monday , June , year week etc we don’t use an article before them.

Note 2 : In some idioms and expressions we don’t use the before next and last.

RULE 16

The is used before names of political parties. Eg The Congress, The Bhartiya Janta Party, The Socialist Party.

RULE 17

The is used before names of religious books.

Example : The Ramayan , The Mahabharat, The Purana ,The Geeta etc.

RULE 18

The is used before the names of a museum/library/ theatre/club/ hotel/restaurant.

Example- The Apsara (theatre) ,The Grand Hotel, The British Library, The Lion’s club etc.

RULE 19

The is used before the names of newspapers.

Example-The Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Dainik Bhaskar etc.

RULE 20

The is used before words referring to physical environment.

Example- the fog, the rain, the sunshine, the countryside , the wind etc.

RULE 21

The is used before names of musical instruments .But when we refer to them as countable noun we use a/an.

Example – The flute is a wind instrument.

I can play the piano.

I want to buy a harmonium.

Rule 22

The is used before radio/television (t v). But when we refer to them as countable noun we use a/an. In case of television if there is watch or on before the word television/t v then we drop the. Example – I watch tv at night.

Where is the radio?
I left the radio on the shelf.

I want to buy a new tv.

Rule 23

The word same and whole are preceded by the.

Example : The whole milk turned sour.

This is the same jacket that you wore yesterday.

The whole class participated.

Rule 24

The is used before names of ships, aeroplanes and trains.

Example : The Rajdhani Express , The Shatabadi express, The Titanic etc.

Rule 25

Article the is used before names of dynasties , historical events , historical periods and empires.

Example : The Chola period, The Marathas, The Harappan Age, The first Battle Of Panipat, The French Revolution, The slave dynasty, The Rajputs etc.

Rule 26

The is used before names of Armed Forces.

Example : the CRPF,  the police , the BSF , the army, the navy, the air force.

Rule 27

The is used before names of government branches

Example :The judiciary, the legislature, the executive

Rule 28

The is used before the name of a part of body if it has a preposition before it.

  1.  She hit me ON THE cheek.
  2. He looked her IN THE eyes and told her that she was telling a lie.

Note-THE is not used in some idioms if they are formed of a PREPOSITION + PART OF THE BODY.

Examples : at hand; in hand; on foot; an eye for an eye.

Rule 29

If ALL OF, EITHER OF, NEITHER OF, EACH OF, MOST OF, SOME OF, BOTH OF, HALF OF ,

NONE OF, etc follow a noun, we use THE before that noun.

  1.  All of the students at Pinnacle come to give the test regularly on Sunday.
  2.  Some of the rice; half of the juice; none of the cement; most of the milk.

NOTE-: If BOTH is following a noun; it’s optional to use THE before that noun.

Both the girls are good students. OR Both girls are good students.

Rule 30

Usage of ‘The’ in comparative form.

i) If ‘OF THE TWO’ is there after a comparative degree; we use THE before that comparative.

a) He is THE BETTER OF THE TWO students.

b) Hisar is THE cheaper OF THE TWO cities.

ii) If there is only one comparative in the sentence and it’s following a singular countable noun, we use A/AN before that comparative.

a) He is A BETTER doctor in this field than Rajiv.

b) This is a cheaper version than that one.

OMISSION OF ‘THE’

1. Before abstract and other uncountable nouns except when they are used for a definite case.

Example-

1) Hard work leads to success. (hard work is an abstract noun)

2) The hard work of Sachin is well known in the cricketing world. (But here the hard work is definite-It is Sachin’s hard work)

3) Dedication is a rare quality.

4) The dedication of the Director at Pinnacle is unbelievable.

2. Omit the article The when used before material nouns when used in general sense

i) GOLD is a precious metal.

ii) We cannot live without water.

NOTE: But a material noun when is used in specific sense we use THE before it; e.g.

a) THE GOLD OF THIS ring is of the finest quality.

b) THE SUGAR I HAVE BOUGHT has been misplaced by someone.

3. Omit the before names of festivals

Christmas, Independence Day, New Year, Diwali, Easter.

4. If a noun or nouns are used after TYPE OF, KIND OF, SORT OF, VARIETY OF they are not preceded by THE.

5. After POST OF, RANK OF, POSITION OF, JOB OF the is not used before nouns.

Example: Post of head clerk , Position of a watchman, job of sweeper etc.

6. When any ‘means of transport’  is preceded by BY, do not use the before the mode of transport.

Example: I will travel by the car.(Incorrect)

I will travel by car.(Correct)

7. In case of names of seasons THE is optional; means both are correct we can use the and may omit it also.

Example: In spring and in the spring are both correct.

8WORK and OFFICE

Work

The article THE is not used before WORK when WORK is used as a place of work.

I am going to the work.(Incorrect)

I am going to work.(Correct)

Office

The article THE is used before WORK when WORK is used as a place of work.

He is at/in THE OFFICE.

9HOME

The article THE is not used with HOME when HOME is not preceded or followed by a descriptive word/phrase.

  1.  He is at HOME right now so you can call him. (You see the word HOME here neither is preceded nor followed by a descriptive word)
  2. He went HOME. iii) I arrived HOME after dark.

NOTE-: But when HOME is preceded or followed by a descriptive word/phrase/clause, it is treated like any other noun.

They went to THEIR NEW HOME.
He arrived at his friend’s HOME with a number of people.

Directions (1-100):In these questions , read each sentence to find out whether there is any error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number of that part is the answer, if there is no error, the answer is (D). (Ignore errors of Punctuation, if any.

Q1.In science the credit goes to a man(A) who convinces the world(B) not to the man to whom the idea first occurs.(C )No error(D)

Q2. It is only after(A) the war was over(B) that villagers realized how bad it was.(C) No error(D)

Q3. Of the two (A)choices this(B) is definitely better. (C) No error(D)

Q4. She is unfortunate enough(A) to lose few friends she made(B) during her stay in Mumbai. (C) No error(D)

Q5. There were a number (A) of pretty girls in the hall (B) but it was Roma who was a centre of attraction. (C) No error (D)

Q6. I have been(A) informed that Dr. Mahajan visits Delhi (B) the following month. (C) No error(D)

Q7. Shyamal is (A) the best artist (B) of that time but least recognized.(C) No error(D)

Q8. He said that he felt nervous(A) because his servant (B) had given him a very bad news(C) No error(D)

Q9. I don’t like that type of a man(A) who does nothing but(B) find out faults in others(C) No error(D)

Q10. He claims to be a mathematician (A) but in reality he(B) does not know even the A B C of math. (C) No error(D)

Q11. The remedy lies(A)in promoting values and democracy so as to combat(B)the oncoming brand of fascism(C) No error(D)

Q12. When the house was(A) set on the fire all the renters (B) started crying at the top of their voices(C) No error(D)

Q13. A first step in a rational solution(A) to any problem is the(B) recognition of the fact that a problem exists(C)No error(D)

Q14. Little knowledge(A) of computer that he possessed(B) proved to be a boon for him when he was helpless(C) No error(D)

Q15. You should not talk to (A) him he always remains in temper (B) these days(C) No error (D)

Q16. He boasts of having good knowledge (A)of mathematics but everybody (B) knows how good he is.(C) No error(D)

Q17. It was by a mistake(A) that she caught(B) her hand (C) No error(D)

Q18. The orders of the owner (A) may put the lives of(B) two thousand workers in a danger(C) No error(D)

Q19. I encouraged him(A) to take the heart in all adverse(B) situations and deserve to be called a real hero(C) No error(D)

Q20. It is not the failures(A) that have made him lose the heart but the lack of (B) emotional support(C) No error(D)

Q21. The most happy(A) marriage would be(B) a union of a deaf man to a blind woman(C) No error(D)

Q22. I told his brothers that they should(A) go to the school regularly (B) and do their home work sincerely(C) No error(D)

Q23. After returning (A) from the jail Raghu had(B) stopped all the criminal activities to lead a simple life(C) No error(D)

Q24. I was an atheist(A) but now –a –days I go to the temple (B) and offers prayers for hours(C) No error(D)

Q25. My uncle (A) forbade me to go to cinema(B) late at night(C) No error(D)

Q26. The fact that the compact car (A) is better than conventional (B) cars has been proved by its sales(C) No error (D)

Q27. There was little (A) water in the bottle and she gave it (B) to the baby when it started crying.(C) No error(D)

Q28. Ajay has (A) a very busy life (B) so he goes everywhere by a car.(C) No error (D)

Q29. Thanks to an insight(A) and persistence of the local doctor(B)hundred of victims have been able to resume a normal life(C)No error(D)

Q30. In a hour’s time (A) when he had finished the work(B) he got up and slipped out silently. (C) No error(D)

Q31. Ram uses(A) the mock –heroic style(B) to depict a violence(C) No error(D)

Q32. I am not wealthy so I (A) cannot afford to buy any (B) luxurious car.(C) No error(D)

Q33. We should be true (A) to our promise in order to earn(B) name and fame in the life(C) No error(D)

Q34. The base (A) of all the modern inventions (B) lies in the science.( C) No error(D)

Q35. Music is science (A) but singing is an art said the(B) music teacher(C) No error (D)

Q36. We should spend (A) a good part of the day(B) in out of door activities and games. (C) No error(D)

Q37. He should mix(A) his authority with little(B) of kindness and common sense (C) No error(D)

Q38. It is a pity(A) that the son of teacher should (B) indulge in stealing(C) No error(D)

Q39. It is the most important(A) thing which you need (B) to consider carefully(C) No error (D)

Q40. The Ganges is(A) one of the longest rivers(B) that are considered sacred in our country.(C) No error (D)

Q41. The Ganges(A) is for North India what Krishna(B)is for South India(C) No error(D)

Q42. Sajjan is a best student (A) in my school (B) at present (C). No error(D)

Q43. The tree in a forest must be properly (A) counted and proper entries (B) be made in the register(C) No error(D)

Q44. The teacher (A) asked the girls to return(B) to the hostel before the sunset (C) No error(D)

Q45. He found himself in a trouble(A) when he saw no (B) one outside the hospital.(C) No error(D)

Q46. My brother said(A)to us that he did not feel any need to (B) discuss the matter in the detail(C) No error(D)

Q47. In the conclusion(A) it may be safely assured that(B) the poet preaches some moral implicitly(C) No error(D)

Q48. All the staff(A) of this office hold the view(B) that Mr. Ram is a very wise and an intelligent officer(C) No error (D)

Q49. The man(A) is the only creature on earth (B) that is endowed with the power of speech(C) No error(D)

Q50. It is very tough (A) to count the number of (B) the creatures living on earth (C) No error(D)

Rules for articles (A/An/The)
Q51 It is a happiness(A)/ to finish(B)/ my revision.(C)/No error(D)

Q52 It took me almost a hour(A)/ to fill the form as it asked(B)/ for too many details(C)/No error (D)

Q53 Households across the state are either opting for a more modest lifestyle(A)/ or compromising on the nutritional value of their food(B)/ in efforts to adjust to the rising prices.(C)/No error(D)

Q54 MNCs show least regard(A)/ for the environment(B)/ as their sole motive is making profit.(C)/No error (D)

Q55 According to a study Japanese(A)/are the most engaged(B)/ in social net working sites.(C)/No error (D)

Q56 A traffic police of the city have made(A)/ elaborate plans to control and direct(B)/ the traffic during the festival season.(C)/No error(D)

Q57 Sometimes it is felt that policies of social justice(A)/ have reached dead end(B)/ due to widespread corruption in the system.(C)/No error (D)

Q58 The actor who plays patriot(A) in the film is known to be(B)/ a very patriotic person in actual life also.(C)/No error (D)

Q59 I live on a top floor(A)/of an old house in Rohini(B)/ with my aged mother.(C)/No error(D)

Q60 Headmaster (A)/has instructed (B)/the teachers to follow the rules of the school.(C)/No error

Q61 He is in (A)/bad mood as (B)/could not clear the exam.(C)/No error(D)

Q62 Having been deprived from their homes(A) in recent earthquake they (B) had no other option but to take shelter in a school.(C) No error (D)

Q63 The technician reminded us(A) where was temple (B)and even led us to the spot(C) No error.(D)

Q64 Women marked International Women’s Day(A) around world with vibrant calls (B)for unity for advance sexual equality and women’s rights.(C)No error (D)

Q65 Teachings of Confucius, (A) the ancient Chinese philosopher which mentions (B) the importance of scholarship, influenced many East Asian societies.(C) No error (D)

Q66 Obsession with education has spinned out of control,(A) putting children under stress(B) and families under pressure to pay expensive tuition fees.(C) No error(D)

Q67 You must either tell me (A) whole story or, at least (B)the first half of it. (C)No error. (D)

Q68 Fifth and final act (A) of Macbeth contains (B)the sleep walking scene. (C) No error. (D)

Q69 I know (A) a doctor (B)you are referring to (C)/No error (D)

Q70 We had a lot of difficulty (A) to find (B) the house. (C) No Error(D)

Q71 Teachers of various schools (A)/ met to discuss (B)/how to improve the standard of the English (C)/No Error. (D)

Q72 The first to arrive (A)/was the lucky recipients (B)/of a surprise gift. (C) /No Error. (D).

Q73 I told him (A)/that I enjoyed very much (B)/at the office. (C)/No error (D).

Q74 Even today (A)/ it is difficult to think (B)/ that men have walked on moon. /(C) No error. (D)

Q75 Adults suffering from the chicken pox (A)can develop (B)all kinds of complications (C) No error. (D)

Q76 The long-distance train (A)/ which met with accident (B)was carrying some armymen. / (C) No error. (D)

Q77 If the worst (A)/comes to worst, (B)/I will have to bid good-bye to my studies and join my family business. (C) /No error. (D)

Q78 She pretends as if she has (A)/never in her life, (B)/told a lies. (C)/No error.(D)

Q79 The principal wanted to know who had arrived (A)/earlier that day (B)/ cashier or the accountant (C)/No error.(D)

Q80 Members of the Opposition Party in the Parliament(A)/ shout upon the minister (B)/ if he makes a wrong statement (C)/. No error (D).

Q81 A milk (A)/ can provide protein(B)/ for nutritionally balanced diet. (C)/No error (D).

Q82 If you do not give (A)/ keys of the cupboard (B)/you will be shot (C)/. No error. (D)

Q83 There are billions of stars(A)/ in galaxy (B)/about which man is unaware.(C)/No error(D)

Q84 I went to bank (A)/to withdraw some money but (B) it was closed so early in the morning.(C)/No error(D)

Q85 Standing at (A)/ top of the hill, (B)/ the houses below were hardly visible. (C)/ No error (D)

Q86 A lot of scenes from film (A)/ were removed (B)/due to the censor board’s objection.(C)/No error(D)

Q87 Neither of two children (A)/ said their prayers (B)/ before going to bed. (C)/ No error (D).

Q88 Although he is university professor (A)/ and earns very well (B)/ he leads a very simple life.(C)/No error (D)

Q89 Judge in him (A)/ prevailed upon the father (B)/ and he sentenced his son to death. (C)/ No error (D).

Q90 All our efforts are directed(A)/ to bring about compromise(B)/ between the two parties.(C) / No error (D).

Q91 Until the world lasts, (A)/the earth will go (B)/ around sun.(C)/ No error.(D)

Q92 He was promoted(A)/ to the rank of(B)/ Colonel last month.(C)/No error(D)

Q93 The priest read Bible (A)/and blessed all the people (B) present in the church.(C)/ No error(D)

Q94 Shatabadi Express is (A)/an important train (B)/which is used by a lot of people in India.(C) No error(D)

Q95 The science has developed a lot (A) in the last fifty years and it has contributed (B) a lot to the development of mankind.(C) /No error (D)

Q96 Radhika is (A) prettier of (B) the two sisters. (C) No error (D)

Q97 She celebrated the Christmas (A)/ with her friends (B)/ in New York.(C)/No error (D)

Q98 You caught me by arm (A), dragged me and (B) threw me out of the room.(C)/No error (D)

Q99 The most widely (A)/read newspaper in Poona (B)/ is Times of India.(C)/No error(D)

Q100 I myself went (A)/ to finalize (B)/ the deal.(C)/No error (D)

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