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Archive for the ‘Economy’ Category

SSC Economics 2018 | Solved Questions | CGL Previous Year Paper

SSC Economics 2018 | Solved Questions | CGL Previous Year Paper

Q1. Which of the following is called GDP Deflator?

निम्नलिखित में से कौन जी.डी.पी.अपस्फीतिकारक कहलाता है?

(a) Ratio of nominal to real GDP / अवास्तविक से वास्तविक जी.डी.पी.का अनुपात

(b) Ratio of nominal to real GNP / अवास्तविक से वास्तविक जी.एन.पी.का अनुपात

(c) Ratio of nominal to real CPI / अवास्तविक से वास्तविक सी.पी.आई.का अनुपात

(d) Ratio of real to nominal GNP / वास्तविक से अवास्तविक जी.एन.पी.का अनुपात

Q2. Which organisation monitors the banks in actually maintaining cash balance?

कौन सी संस्था नज़र रखती है कि बैंक वास्तव में नकद शेष बनाए हुए है?

(a) State Bank of India / भारतीय स्टेट बैंक

(b) Reserve Bank of India / भारतीय रिजर्व बैंक

(c) Grameen Bank of India / भारतीय ग्रामीण बैंक

(d) None of these / इनमें से कोई नहीं

Q3. What does indifference curve represent?

अपक्षपात वक्र क्या दर्शाता है?

(a) Levels of Income and Capital / आय तथा पूंजी का स्तर

(b) Satisfaction derived from two goods / दो वस्तुओं से प्राप्त संतुष्टि

(c) Income from two businesses / दो व्यापारों से प्राप्त आय

(d) Relationship between expenditure and savings / व्यय तथा बचत का संबंध

Q4. Match the following,

निम्नलिखित का मिलान कीजिये |

(a) 1-c, 2-b, 3-a

(b) 1-b, 2-c, 3-a

(c) 1-a, 2-b, 3-c

(d) 1-a, 2-c, 3-b

SSC Economics 2018
Q5. After which five year plan, ‘The Rolling Plan’ was implemented?

किस पंचवर्षीय योजना के बाद ‘अनवरत योजना (रोलिंग प्लान)’ को लागू किया गया था?

(a) Third Plan / तीसरी योजना

(b) Fifth Plan / पांचवी योजना

(c) Seventh Plan / सातवी योजना

(d) Ninth Plan / नौवी योजना

Q6. Which tax causes a burden on the poorer section of the society?

कौन सा कर समाज के गरीब श्रेणी के समुदायों पर बोझ बनता है?

(a) Direct Tax / प्रत्यक्ष कर

(b) Indirect Tax / अप्रत्यक्ष कर

(c) Both Direct and Indirect Tax / प्रत्यक्ष तथा अप्रत्यक्ष कर दोनों

(d) None of these / इनमें से कोई नहीं

Q7. In which of the following market forms a firm does not exercise control over price?

निम्नलिखित में से किस प्रकार के बाजार में एक व्यवसाय संघ कीमतों को नियंत्रित करने में असमर्थ रहता है?

(a)  Mixed Competition/  मिश्रित स्पर्धा

(b)  Monopoly/  एकाधिकार

(c)  Oligopoly/  अल्पाधिकार

(d)  Perfect Competition/  पूर्ण स्पर्धा

Q8. Which of the following is represented by ‘Lorenz Curve’?

निम्नलिखित में से ‘लोरेन्ज वक्र’ क्या दर्शाता है?

(a)  Employment/  रोज़गार

(b)  Inflation/  मुद्रास्फीति

(c) Deflation/  अपस्फीति

(d)  Income Distribution/  आय वितरण

Q9. In a centrally planned economy, the ________ plans all the important activities in the economy.

केन्द्रीकृत योजनाबद्ध अर्थव्यवस्था के अंतर्गत _______ उस अर्थव्यवस्था के सभी महत्वपूर्ण क्रियाकलापों की योजना बनाती है|

(a)  Industrialists/  उद्योगपति

(b)  Citizens/  नागरिक

(c)  Government/  सरकार

(d)  Judiciary/  न्यायपालिका

Q10. _______ says that if we keep increasing the employment of an input, with other inputs fixed, eventually a point will be reached after which the resulting addition to output (i.e., marginal product of that input) will start falling.

______ कहता है की अगर किसी आगत के प्रयोग में वृद्धि करते हैं, जब अन्य आगत स्थिर हों, तो एक समय के बाद ऐसी स्थिति आयेगी कि प्राप्त होने वाला अतिरिक्त आगत (जैसे आगत का सीमांत उत्पाद) में गिरावट आने लगेगी|

(a)  Law of diminishing marginal product/  हासमान सीमांत उत्पाद नियम

(b)  Law of variable proportions/  परिवर्ती अनुपात नियम

(c)  The Short Run/  अल्पकाल

(d)  The Long Run/  दीर्घकाल

SSC Economics 2018
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SSC GK 2018 Economics | Previous Year Solved Questions | Tier 1

SSC GK 2018 Economics | Previous Year Solved Questions | Tier 1

Q1. Which of the following rate is charged by banks to their most credit worthy customers?

निम्नलिखित में से कौन सी दर बैंकों द्वारा ऋण के लिए अपने सबसे योग्य ग्राहकों से वसूली जाती है?

(a) Prime Lending Rate / न्यूनतम उधार दर

(b) Statutory Liquidity Rate / सांविधिक तरलता दर

(c) Bank Rate / बैंक दर

(d) Repo Rate / पुनर्खरीद दर

Q2. Medium term loans are provided for a period of________.

मध्यावधि ऋण______तक की अवधि के लिए दी जाती हैं |

(a) 1 year to 2 years / 1 वर्ष से 2 वर्ष

(b) 15 months to 3 years / 15 माह से 3 वर्ष

(c) 15 months to 4 years / 15 माह से 4 वर्ष

(d) 1 year to 3 years / 1 वर्ष से 3 वर्ष

Q3. India’s first official census operation was undertaken in which year?

भारत का पहला आधिकारिक जनगणना अभियान किस वर्ष चलाया गया था?

(a)  1841

(b)  1881

(c)  1921

(d)  1961

Q4. The change in the optimal quantity of a good when its price changes and the consumer’s income is adjusted so that she can just buy the bundle that she was buying before the price change is called?

किसी वस्तु की कीमत में परिवर्तन होने पर और उपभोक्ता की आय को इस प्रकार समायोजित करने पर कि वह उसी बण्डल को खरीद सके जिसे वह कीमत में परिवर्तन के पहले खरीदता था, वस्तु की इष्टतम मात्रा में हुए परिवर्तन को क्या कहा जाता हैं?

(a)  Law of demand/  मांग का नियम

(b)  Substitution effect/  प्रतिस्थापन प्रभाव

(c)  Problem of choice/  चुनाव की समस्या

(d)  Optimal choice/  इष्टतम चुनाव

Q5. Courier service comes under which sector?

संदेश सेवा किस क्षेत्र के अंतर्गत आता है?

(a)  Primary/  प्राथमिक

(b)  Secondary/  द्वितीय

(c)  Tertiary/  तृतीय

(d)  Both Secondary and Tertiary/  द्वितीय तथा तृतीय दोनों

SSC GK 2018 Economics
Q6. Which among the following is not a direct tax?

निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा डायरेक्ट टैक्स नहीं है?

(a)  Income tax/  आयकर

(b)  Wealth tax/  संपत्ति कर

(c)  Corporate tax/ कॉर्पोरेट कर

(d)  None of these/  इनमें से कोई नहीं  

Q7. Which of the following pair/pairs is/are INCORRECT?

  1. Golden revolution – Fruits production
  2. Blue revolution – Increasing production of fertilizers
  3.  Yellow revolution – For the production of eggs

निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा/से युग्म सही नहीं है/हैं?

  1. स्वर्ण क्रांति – फलों का उत्पादन
  2. नीली क्रांति – उर्वरकों के उत्पादन में वृद्धि
  3. पीली क्रांति – अण्डों के उत्पादन के लिए

(a)  Only I/  केवल I

(b)  Only II/  केवल II

(c)  Both I and II/  I तथा II दोनों

(d)  Both II and III/  II तथा III दोनों

Q8. MTNL comes under which of the following category?

एम.टी.एन.एल. निम्नलिखित में से किस श्रेणी में आता है?

(a)  Navratna/ नवरत्न

(b)  Maharatna/  महारत्न

(c)  Mini Ratna/  मिनी रत्न

(d)  None option is correct/  कोई भी विकल्प सही नहीं हैं

Q9. Which among the following is not an instrument of fiscal policy?

निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा एक राजकोषीय नीति का यंत्र नहीं है?

(a) Taxation / कराधान

(b) Public expenditure / जन व्यय

(c) Public debt / लोक ऋण

(d) Credit Rationing / क्रेडिट राशनिंग

Q10. Which of the following equation is/are INCORRECT?

  1. NI = NDP + Net Foreign Income
  2. GNP = GDP + Net Foreign Income
  3. NDP = GNP – Depreciation

निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा/से समीकरण सही नहीं है/है?

  1. एन.आई. = एन.डी.पी. + निवल विदेशी आय
  2. जी.एन.पी. = जी.डी.पी. + निवल विदेशी आय
  3. एन.डी.पी. = जी.एन.पी. – अवमूलयन

(a) Only (I) and (II) / केवल (I) तथा (II)

(b) Only (III) / केवल (III)

(c) Only (II) and (III) / केवल (II) तथा (III)

(d) Only (II) / केवल (II)

SSC GK 2018 Economics
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CGL GK Economics 2018 :- SSC Exam Preparation | Previous Year Paper

CGL GK Economics 2018 :- SSC Exam Preparation | Previous Year Paper

Q1. The ________ balance is the sum of the balance of merchandise trade, services and net transfers received from the rest of the world.

_________शेष सौदा व्यापार, सेवाओं और शेष विश्व से प्राप्त निवल अंतरण का योग होता है |

(a)Current Account/चालू लेखा

(b)Savings Account/बचत लेखा

(c)Capital Account/पूंजीगत लेखा

(d)Asset Account/संपत्ति लेखा

Q2. The relation between the consumer’s optimal choice of the quantity of a good and its price is very important and this relation is called the ________function.

किसी वस्तु की मात्र के लिए उपभोक्ता का इष्टतम चयन तथा उसकी कीमत में सम्बन्ध अत्यंत महत्वपूर्ण हैं तथा यह सम्बन्ध ________ फलन कहलाता है |

(a)Price/कीमत

(b)Substitution/प्रतिस्थापन

(c)Supply/आपूर्ति

(d)Demand/मांग

Q3. In ____________, the short run equilibrium results in quantity produced being lesser and prices being higher compared to perfect competition.

________में आपातकालीन संतुलन के परिणामस्वरूप पूर्ण प्रतिस्पर्धा की तुलना में उत्पादन की मात्र कम होती है |

(a)Monopsony/क्रेता एकाधिकार

(b)Monopoly/एकाधिकार

(c)Oligopoly/अल्पाधिकार

(d)Monopolistic Competition/एकाधिकारी प्रतिस्पर्धा

Q4. The average product curve are inverse ____ shaped.

औसत उत्पाद वक्र उलटे _________के आकार में हैं |

(a)X

(b)W

(c)V

(d)U

Q5. Which among the following is not an account under Balance of Payment?

निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा भुगतान संतुलन के अंतर्गत एक खाता नहीं हैं?

(a)Current Account / चालू खाता

(b)Capital Account / पूंजीगत खाता

(c)Official Reserves Account / आधिकारिक आरक्षित खाता

(d)Unilateral Payments Account / एक-तरफ़ा भुगतान खाता

CGL GK Economics 2018
Q6. Match the following.

निम्नलिखित का मिलान कीजिए |

(a)1­-c, 2­-a, 3­-b

(b)1-­b, 2-­c, 3-­a

(c)1-­b, 2­-a, 3-­c

(d)1-­c, 2­-b, 3­-a

Q7. In which market form, a market or industry is dominated by a few firms?

किस प्रकार की बाज़ार व्यवस्था में, बाज़ार अथवा उद्योग पर कुछ ही विक्रेताओं का वर्चस्व होता है?

(a)Perfect Competition/पूर्ण स्पर्धा

(b)Monopoly/एकाधिकार

(c)Oligopoly/अल्पाधिकार

(d)Monopolistic/एकाधिकार

Q8. Which amongst the following is not a component of monetary policy in India?

निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा भारत में मौद्रिक नीति का घटक नहीं है?

(a)Repo rate/रेपो रेट

(b)Moral suasion/नैतिक उत्तेजना

(c)Credit Rationing/क्रेडिट सम्भाजन

(d)Public Debt/सार्वजनिक ऋण

Q9. Which one of the following is not an instrument of credit control in India?

निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा भारत के ऋण नियंत्रक का एक प्रकार नहीं है?

(a) Rationing of credit/  ऋण का राशन

(b)  Direct Action/  सीधी कार्यवाही

(c)  Open Market operations/  खुले बाजार के कार्यकलाप

(d)  Variable cost reserve ratios/  परिवर्तनीय लागत आरक्षित निधि अनुपात

Q10. Which among the following is an example of micro­economic variable?

निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा सूक्ष्म आर्थिक चर का एक उदाहरण है?

(a) National Income/  राष्ट्रीय आय

(b)  Aggregate Supply/  सकल आपूर्ति

(c)  Employment/  रोज़गार

(d)  Consumer’s Equilibrium/  उपभोक्ता संतुलन

CGL GK Economics 2018
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GK Economics Solved Questions :: SSC CGL Examination 2018-19 | Tier 1

GK Economics Solved Questions :: SSC CGL Examination 2018-19 | Tier 1

Q1. An economic system combining private and state enterprise is called as _____

एक आर्थिक व्यवस्था,जिसे निजी तथा राज्य के उपक्रम को मिलाकर बनाई जाती है,वह______कहलाती है |

(a) Market economy / बाजार अर्थव्यवस्था

(b) Centrally planned economy / केंद्रीय रूप से नियोजित अर्थव्यवस्था

(c) Private economy / निजी अर्थव्यवस्था

(d) Mixed economy / मिश्रित अर्थव्यवस्था

Q2. What was the main motive of Third Five Year Plan in India?

भारत में तीसरी पंचवर्षीय योजना का मुख्य उदेश्य क्या था?

(a) Rural development / ग्रामीण विकास

(b) Agriculture / कृषि

(c) Financial inclusion / आर्थिक समावेश

(d) Economic reform / आर्थिक सुधार

Q3. Which one of the following is a component of Food Security System?

निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा खाद्य सुरक्षा प्रणाली का एक घटक है?

(a)Buffer Stock/सुरक्षित भंडार

(b)Minimum Support Price/न्यूनतम समर्थन मूल्य

(c)Fair Price Shops/उचित मूल्य की दुकानें

(d)Mid-day Meals/मध्याहन भोजन

Q4. What is the accepted average Calorie requirement for rural area in India?

भारत में ग्रामीण क्षेत्र के लिए आवश्यक औसत कैलोरी कितनी है?

(a)2100

(b)2200

(c)2300

(d)2400

Q5. “Neo-Malthusian Theory” is associated with which of the following?

“नव-मल्थुसियन सिद्धांत” निम्नलिखित में से किस सम्बंधित है?

(a)Employment/रोज़गार

(b)Poverty/गरीबी

(c)Resource Scarcity/संसाधन की कमी

(d)Income/आय

GK Economics Solved Questions
Q6. The demand curve facing a perfectly competitive firm is

मांग वक्र , जो एक पूरी तरह से प्रतिस्पर्धी फर्म का सामना कर रहा हैं, वह हैं

(a)downward sloping / नीचे की ओर झुका हुआ

(b)perfectly inelastic / पूरी तरह स्थिर

(c)a concave curve / एक अवतल वक्र

(d)perfectly elastic / पूरी तरह से लोचदार

Q7. Who takes the decision regarding the savings and loan activities in a Self Help Group (SHG)?

स्वयं सहायता समूह (एस.एच.जी) में बचत व ऋण गतिविधियों से सम्बंधित निर्णय कौन लेता है?

(a)Private Bank/निजी बैंक

(b)Reserve Bank of India/भारतीय रिज़र्व बैंक

(c)Members of group/समूह के सदस्य

(d)Non Government Organizations/गैर सरकारी संगठन

Q8. Which amongst the following is not in the list of Maharatna?

निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा महारात्नोंकी सूची में नहीं आता?

(a)Coal India Limited/कोल इंडिया लिमिटेड

(b)Steel Authority of India Limited/भारतीय इस्पात प्राधिकरण

(c)Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited/हिंदुस्तान पेट्रोलियम कारपोरेशन लिमिटेड

(d)Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited/भारत हैवी इलेक्ट्रिकल्स लिमिटेड

Q9. Who gave the ‘General Equilibrium Theory’?

‘सामान्य संतुलन सिद्धांत’ किसने प्रतिपादित किया था?

(a)J. M. Keynes/जे.एम. कीन्स

(b)Leon Walras/लिऑन वालरस

(c)David Ricardo/डेविड रिकार्डो

(d)Adam Smith/एडम स्मिथ

Q10. Which of the following is not true about a Demand Draft?

निम्लिखित में से कौन सा डिमांड ड्राफ्ट के सन्दर्भ में सही नहीं है?

(a)It is a negotiable instrument./यह एक परक्राम्य लिखित है |

(b)It is a banker’s cheque./यह एक बैंकर्स चेक है |

(c)It may be dishonoured for lack of funds./यह धन के अभाव के कारण अस्वीकृत किया जा सकता है |

(d)It is issued by a bank./यह बैंक द्वारा जारी किया जाता है |

GK Economics Solved Questions
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CGL GK Economics Solved Questions | Tier 1 2018 Exam Preparation

CGL GK Economics Solved Questions | Tier 1 2018 Exam Preparation

Q1. At which rate, Reserve Bank of India borrows money from commercial banks?

किस दर पर, भारतीय रिज़र्व बैंक वाणिज्य बैंको से धन उधार लेता है ?

(a) Bank Rate / बैंक दर

(b) Repo Rate / रेपो दर

(c) Reverse Repo Rate / रिवर्स रेपो दर

(d) Statutory Liquidity Rate / सांविधिक तरलता दर

Q2. Movement along the supply curve is known as ______ .

आपूर्ति वक्र के साथ साथ चलने को _______ कहते हैं I

(a)Contraction of supply / आपूर्ति में संकुचन

(b)Expantion of supply / आपूर्ति में विस्तार

(c)Increase in supply / आपूर्ति में बढ़ोतरी

(d)Expansion and contraction of supply / आपूर्ति में विस्तार तथा संकुचन

Q3. The ________ curve represents the demand of all consumers in the market taken together at different levels of the price of the good.

_______वक्र बाजार में सभी उपभोक्ताओं कि मांग को वास्तु की कीमत के विभ्भिन स्तरों पैर समग्र दृष्टि से देख कर मांग को प्रदर्शित करता है |

(a)Monotonic / एकदृष्टि

(b)Indifferent / तटस्थ

(c)Market demand / बाजार मांग

(d)Diminishing / ह्वासमान

Q4. The market structure called monopoly exists where there is exactly ______ seller in any market.

जिस बाजार में संरचना में केवल ______विक्रेता होता है, उसे एकाधिकार कहते हैं |

(a)One / एक

(b)Two / दो

(c)Five / पांच

(d)Ten / दस

Q5. In which of the following case, law of demand fails?

निम्नलिखित में से किस परिस्थिति में, मांग का नियम असफल हो जाता है?

(a)Giffen goods/निम्नस्तरीय वस्तुएं

(b)Normal goods/सामान्य वस्तुएं

(c)Inferior goods/गौण वस्तुएं

(d)Both Giffen and Inferior goods/निम्नस्तरीय वस्तुएं तथा गौण वस्तुएं

CGL GK Economics Solved Questions
Q6. Match the following.

निम्नलिखित का मिलान कीजिये |

(a)1-b, 2-c, 3-a

(b)1-c, 2-a, 3-b

(c)1-a, 2-b, 3-c

(d)1-b, 2-a, 3-c

Q7. In which market form, a market or an industry is dominated by a single seller?

किस प्रकार की बाज़ार व्यवस्था में, बाज़ार अथवा उद्योग पर एक ही विक्रेता का वर्चस्व होता है |

(a)Oligopoly / अल्पाधिकार

(b)Monopoly / एकाधिकार

(c)Duopoly / द्व्धिकार

(d)Monopolistic Competition / एकाधिकार प्रतियोगिता

Q8. Which one of the following is also regarded as Disguised unemployment?

प्रच्छन्न बेरोज़गारी को और किस नाम से जाना जाता है?

(a)Underemployment/अल्प रोज़गार

(b)Frictional unemployment/संघर्ष संबधी बेरोज़गारी

(c)Seasonal unemployment/मौसमी बेरोज़गारी

(d)Cyclical unemployment/चक्रीय बेरोज़गारी

Q9. When there is only one buyer and one seller of product, it is called _____ situation.

जब किसी वस्तु का केवल एक क्रेता एवं एक विक्रेता होता है, तब वह _______स्थिति कहलाती है|

(a)Public monopoly/जनता एकाधिकार

(b)Bilateral monopoly/द्विपक्षीय एकाधिकार

(c)Franchised monopoly/विशेष विक्रेता एकाधिकार

(d)Monopsony/क्रय का एकाधिकार

Q10.  Which among the following sponsors Regional Rural Banks (RRB’S)?

निम्नलिखित में से कौन क्षेत्रीय ग्रामीण बैंको को प्रायोजित करता है?

(a)Reserve Bank of India/भारतीय रिज़र्व बैंक

(b)Foreign Banks/विदेशी बैंक

(c)National Commercial Banks/राष्ट्रीय वाणिज्यिक बैंक

(d)Co-Operative Banks/सहकारी बैंक

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Geographical Indication/ Patents/ Trade Mark :: SSC CGL :: study material

Geographical Indication/ Patents/ Trade Mark :: SSC CGL :: study material

Geographical indication-

A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on certain products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g. a town, region, or country). The use of a geographical indication may act as a certification that the product possesses certain qualities, is made according to traditional methods, or enjoys a certain reputation, due to its geographical origin.

Definition-

A geographical indication (GI) is a sign used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin. In order to function as a GI, a sign must identify a product as originating in a given place. In addition, the qualities, characteristics or reputation of the product should be essentially due to the place of origin. Since the qualities depend on the geographical place of production, there is a clear link between the product and its original place of production.

Protection for a GI

Under the Geographical Indications Act, it is not necessary to file an application to protect the GI. 

In Singapore, a GI can be protected under the Geographical Indications Act (Cap. 117B). It may also be eligible for registration as a trade mark under the Trade Marks Act (Cap. 332).

A GI is distinct from a trade mark. A GI informs consumers that a product comes from a certain place and has special qualities due to that place of origin, while a trade mark is used to distinguish a business’ goods or services from those of its competitors. A GI may be used by all producers or traders whose products originate from that place and which share typical characteristics, while a trade mark gives its owners the right to prevent others from using the trade mark.

In Singapore, the law protects only the GIs of a country which is a member of the World Trade Organization, a party to the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, or a country designated by the Singapore Government as a qualifying country from which GIs of that country can be protected. In addition, the GI must be protected in its country of origin. The producer, trader or association of such producers or traders of any such GI enjoy automatic protection.

Geographical Indication
GIs that are not protected

It is important to note the following instances where a GI will not be protected:

  • It is immoral or against public order;
  • It is no longer in use or no longer protected in the country of origin;
  • It has become the common name in Singapore for the goods or services which it identifies;
  • [for wines and spirits] it has been used continuously for at least 10 years preceding 15 April 1994 or in good faith preceding that date;
  • It is confusingly similar to a trade mark for which rights had been acquired before the GI is protected in its country of origin; or
  • It is the name of a person or a predecessor in a particular business.

Rights and remedies

In Singapore, a producer, trader or an association of producers or traders can sue for false use of a GI by an unauthorised party when the GI is used in a situation where it is misleading, unfair or dishonest, or where the GI used identifies a wine or spirit that does not originate from the place as indicated by the GI.

A producer, trader or an association can exercise his rights under the Geographical Indications Act by taking legal action against the infringing party.

Benefits of registration of geographical indications:

  1. It confers legal protection to Geographical Indications in India.
  2. Prevents unauthorized use of a Registered Geographical Indication by others.
  3. It provides legal protection to Indian Geographical Indications which in turn boost exports.

Significance of Geographical Indications

A geographical  indication  is  a  geographical  name  signifying  that  a  product  originates  in  a country or a specific locality. Recently, geographical indication (GIs) emerged as one of the most important instrument of protecting quality, reputation or  other  character  of  goods  essentially  attributable  to  their  geographical  origin. It is valuable to providence, a ‘source identifier’ and indicator of quality. GI helps to promote its goods “eligible for relief from acts of infringement and/or unfair competition”.

The concern shown  by  the  World  Intellectual  Property  Organization  (WIPO)  and  World  Trade Organization  (WTO)  gave  new  impetus  to  protection  of GIs. According  to  the WIPO Standing Committee on the Law of Trademarks, Industrial Designs and Geographical Indications  “a  geographical  indication  is  best  protected  under  trademark  and  unfair competition  law.  Trademark  having  acquired  in  good  faith  had  to  be  protected  against conflicting  geographical  indications.”Protection  of  GI  prevent  third  parties  from  passing  off  their  products  as  those originating  in  the  given  region.  Famous examples are ‘Champagne’ for sparkling wine and ‘Roquefort’ for cheese from areas of these names in France or ‘Darjeeling’ for tea from this district in India.  It  is not necessary  for  these  indications  to be geographical names as  in  the case of ‘Feta’ for cheese from Greece or ‘Basmati’ for rice from India and Pakistan as there are no places, localities or regions with these names. Plant varieties developed with traditional knowledge  and  associated  with  a  particular  region  can  also  be  protected  as  geographical indications. The advantage in such protection is that it is not time-limited. However, needless to say, commercial benefits can be derived  from  the  protection  of  geographical  indications  only  when  the  name  becomes reasonably famous.

Registration of Geographical Indications in India

The Register of Geographical Indications will keep a Geographical Indications Registry at the head office Chennai. In that register, all registered geographical indications with the names, addresses and descriptions of the proprietors, the names, addresses and descriptions of authorised user and such other prescribed matters relating to registered geographical indications are entered. Such registers may be maintained wholly or partly on computer. The Registrar can keep the records wholly or partly in computer floppies or diskettes or in any other electronic form, subject to prescribed safeguards. A copy of the register and such other documents as may be notified by the Central Government in the official Gazette shall be kept at each branch office of the G.I. Registrar. The Register has two parts. Part A contains particulars relating to the registration of geographical indications. Part B contains the particulars relating to the authorised users. Registration is required both for a geographical indication as well as an authorised user. A geographical indication is registered for a period of ten years. The registration can be renewed from time to time for further ten years from the expiration of last registration. An authorised user is registered for a period of ten years, or till the date of expiry of the registration of the geographical indication for which the authorised user is registered whichever is earlier. For registration, or renewal of registration an application is to be made in the prescribed format accompanied by the prescribed fee in each case. If the registration is not renewed when due, the geographical indication or the authorised user for it, as the case may be, is removed from the register.

However, an application to continue the registration can be made within six months from the expiration of the last registration. Registration of a geographical indication is not mandatory under the Act. However, if a geographical indication is registered, it affords a better legal protection to authorised users in cases of infringement of registered geographical indications. No infringement proceedings can be launched under the Act, for an unregistered geographical indication, either to prevent infringement or to recover the damages. In case of two or more authorised users, they would have co-equal rights as against other persons and no one will have the exclusive right to the use of any of those geographical indications.

Any right to a registered G.I. is not the subject matter of assignment, transmission, licensing, mortgage or any such agreement. But on the death of an authorised user, the user’s right in a registered G.I. passes on to his successor.

The following are the geographical indications that cannot be registered in India:

  • Things which are determined to be generic names or indications of goods and are, therefore, not or ceased to be protected in their country of origin, or which have fallen into disuse in that country
  • Things which comprise or contain any matter likely to hurt the religious susceptibilities of any class or section of the citizens of India
  • Things which would otherwise be disentitled to protection in a court
  • The use of which would be likely to deceive or cause confusion
  • The use of which would be contrary to any law for the time being in force
  • Things which comprise or contain scandalous or obscene matter
  • Things which although literally true as to the territory, region or locality in which the goods originate, but falsely represent to the persons that the goods originate in another territory, region or locality, as the case may be.

Problem/issues with GI Act?

  1. India has huge social, cultural, ethnic, food diversities= thousands of products that would qualify for a geographical indication.
  2. But Most of the people engaged in the production of such products are small households or small units, although in the same area.
  3. So it is often difficult to organize them into associations and apply for the GI registration.

Patents-

The word patent originates from the Latin patere, which means “to lay open” (i.e., to make available for public inspection). More directly, it is a shortened version of the term letters patent, which was a royal decree granting exclusive rights to a person, predating the modern patent system. Similar grants included land patents, which were land grants by early state governments in the USA, and printing patents, a precursor of modern copyright.

In modern usage, the term patent usually refers to the right granted to anyone who invents any new, useful, and non-obvious process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter. Some other types of intellectual property rights are also called patents in some jurisdictions: industrial design rights are called design patents in the US, plant breeders’ rights are sometimes called plant patents, and utility models and Gebrauchsmuster are sometimes called petty patents or innovation patents.

Definition-

A patent is a government license that gives the holder exclusive rights to a process, design or new invention for a designated period of time. Applications for patents are usually handled by a government agency. In the United States, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office handles application and documentation.

Patent office-

Head office- Kolkata

Branch office at

  • Mumbai
  • Delhi
  • Chennai

Objectives of Patent Law

One of the primary objectives of patent law is to promote innovation in the market place. It works to accomplish this by granting the developers of patentable inventions an incentive in the form of an exclusive right to use, produce and sell the invention for a period of time.

Patent law is so important because without such protection, unauthorized parties would be free to wait for others to invest the time, energy and money necessary to develop new technology and then simply copy it. Therefore, patent protection helps to facilitate a return on investment.

EXAMPLE: Suppose a company expends the time, money and effort necessary to develop an innovative and potentially life saving surgical device. The company eventually applies for and obtains a patent for the product. That company would be granted an exclusive right to produce, use and sell that invention for a set period of time.

During the protection period a third party with no rights to the invention begins to produce, use and sell the device. The patent holder may then call on a court and/or the police) to order the infringer to cease production use, and/or sale of the device and impose fines and/or imprisonment.

Another objective of patent law is to provide greater certainty in the market by providing a system by which to determine who holds the exclusive rights to a particular invention.

Types of patent applications-

  1. Pct National Phase Application

When an international application is made according to PCT designating India, an applicant can file the national phase application in India within 31 months from the international filing date or the priority date (whichever is earlier).

  1. Patent Of Addition

When an applicant feels that he has come across an invention which is a slight modification of the invention for which he has already applied for or has obtained patent, the applicant can go for patent of addition if the invention does not involve a substantial inventive step. There is no need to pay separate renewal fee for the patent of addition during the term of the main patent and it expires along with the main patent.

  1. Divisional Application

When an application made by applicant claims more than one invention, the applicant on his own or to meet the official objection may divide the application and file two or more applications, as applicable for each of the inventions. This type of application, divided out of the parent one, is called a Divisional Application. The priority date for all the divisional applications will be same as that claimed by the Parent Application (Ante-dating).

  1. Provisional Application

A provisional application is a temporary application which is filed when the invention is not finalized and is still under experimentation.

Procedure of Patent in India

Rights Conferred by Registration

Patent represents one of the powerful intellectual property rights. The registration of a patent confers on the patentee the exclusive right to use, manufacture or sell his invention for the term of the patent. It means that the invention cannot be commercially made, used, distributed or sold without the patentee’s consent. The patent rights can usually be enforced in a court of law.

Who Can Apply

Any person claiming to be the true and first inventor of the invention;

Any person being the assignee of the person claiming to be the true and first inventor in respect of the right to make such an application;

Any legal representative of any deceased person who immediately before his death was entitled to make such application Patent Search;

It is prudent to conduct searches as early as possible to avoid spending time and money re-inventing a known matter. A patent is not granted to an invention if it is already available with the public either in the form of published literature or common knowledge.

Patent Specification

The process of patenting typically involves conducting prior art searches to distinguish the invention and develop a description that illustrates the best method of working the invention. The description of the invention is called specification. Depending upon the sufficiency of the description a specification may be either provisional or complete Specification.

Provisional and Complete Specification

A provisional specification is often the first application filed in respect of an invention, and usually contains only a brief description of the invention. It need not contain claims. Compared with the provisional, the complete specification contains the full description of the invention, and the best method of making the invention work. The complete specification comprises a title, field of invention, the background of the invention, the description of the related art, drawbacks of the prior art, the summary of the invention, the brief description of the figures, the detailed description of the preferred embodiments, claims and abstract. Complete specification must be filed within 12 months from the date of filing of the provisional specification.

Claims are the most important component in the patent specification as it is the legal operative part which define and determine the legal protection sought for. The extent of patent protection for an invention shall be determined by the terms of the claims. The description and the appended drawings may be used to interpret the claims.

Filing and Prosecuting Patent Applications

The procedure for the grant of a patent starts with filing of the patent application along with the prescribed fees at the patent office followed by filing of request for examination in the prescribed format, after the publication of the application. The applications are examined substantively and a first examination report stating the objections is communicated to the applicant. Application may be amended in order to meet the objections. If the applicant does not comply with the objection, the application will be abandoned. After complying off the requirements the application is published in the Official Journal. At that time, opposition can be filed on limited grounds, but hearing is not mandatory. Patent will be granted if the application is found to be in order. Then, the application and other related documents will be open for public inspection. Thereafter, at any time after the grant but before the expiry of a period of one year from the date of publication opposition on substantive grounds is available. The whole process typically takes at least two years.

Duration of a Patent

The tenure for patents is 20 years from the date of filing of the application for the patent before the patent office. It is the responsibility of the patentee to maintain an issued patent by paying the annuities until the patent expires. After 20 years term the invention claimed in the patent falls into the public domain.

Information Required for Patent Registration

  1. Name address of the applicant.
  2. Complete Specification.
  3. Drawing.
  4. Request.
  5. Abstract.
  6. Power of Attorney.
  7. Priority documents (if any).

Trade mark-

A trademark, trade mark’, or trade-mark is a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to identify services are usually called service marks. The trademark owner can be an individual, business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a package, a label, a voucher, or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity, trademarks are often displayed on company buildings.

Definition-

A Trade Mark is a visual symbol in the form of a word , a device ,or a label applied to articles of commerce with a view to indicate to the purchasing public that is a good manufactured or other wise dealt in by a particular person as distinguished from similar goods dealt or manufacture by other persons

Object of Trade Mark

IS to deal with the precise nature of the rights which a person can acquire in respect of a TM-The mode of acquisition of such rights -the method of transfer of those rights to others-the precise nature of infringement of such rights-and the remedies available in respect thereof.

Functions of a Trade Mark

  1. It identifies the product of its origin 2. It guaranties its unchanged quality 3. It advertises the products & 4. It creates an image for products.

What is a good Trade Mark

  1. It should be easy to pronounce and remember if it is word mark
  2. In case of a device mark -should be capable of being described by a single word.
  3. It was be easy to spell correctly and write legibly
  4. It should not be descriptive
  5. It should be short
  6. It should appeal to the eye as well as the ear.
  7. It should not belong to the class of marks prohibited for registration
  8. It should satisfy the requirements of registration.

Main Features Of New Legislation In India

 Under the new Trademarks Act of 1999:

  • Registration of Service Marks allowed in addition to Trademarks for goods.
  • No separate application necessary for each category/class of goods or services; a single application would do, however filing fee will be charged separately for each class of goods/services.
  • The term of registration of trademark is ten years, subject to renewal thereafter.
  • The system of maintaining registration of trademark in Part A and Part B with different legal rights, dispensed away.
  • Registration of trademarks which are imitations of well known trademarks not permitted.
  • Registration of Collective Marks owned by associations allowed.
  • Offences relating to trademark made cognizable.
  • Filing Fees enhanced by more than 8 times.
  • Extension of application of convention countries.

Trademarks In India

The Function Of A Trademark

Under modern business condition a trade mark performs four functions:

  • It identifies the goods / or services and its origin.
  • It guarantees its unchanged quality
  • It advertises the goods/services
  • It creates an image for the goods/ services.

HOW TO SELECT A TRADEMARK

  • If it is a word it should be easy to speak, spell and remember.
  • The best trade marks are invented words or coined words.
  • Please avoid selection of a geographical name. No one can have monopoly right on it.
  • Avoid adopting laudatory word or words that describe the quality of goods (such as best, perfect, super etc)
  • It is advisable to conduct a market survey and a search at Trademark office to ascertain if same/similar mark is used in market.

 THE TYPES OF TRADEMARKS THAT CAN BE REGISTERED

Under the Indian trademark law the following are the types of trademarks that can be registered:

  • Product trademarks: are those that are affixed to identify goods.
  • Service trademarks: are used to identify the services of an entity, such as the trademark for a broadcasting service, retails outlet, etc. They are used in advertising for services.
  • Certification trademarks: are those that are capable of distinguishing the goods or services in connection with which it is used in the course of trade and which are certified by the proprietor with regard to their origin, material, the method of manufacture, the quality or other specific features
  • Collective trademarks: are registered in the name of groups, associations or other organizations for the use of members of the group in their commercial activities to indicate their membership of the group.

 DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRADEMARKS AVAILABLE FOR ADOPTION

  • Any name (including personal or surname of the applicant or predecessor in business or the signature of the person), which is not unusual for trade to adopt as a mark.
  • An invented word or any arbitrary dictionary word or words, not being directly descriptive of the character or quality of the goods/service.
  • Letters or numerals or any combination thereof.
  • The right to proprietorship of a trade mark may be acquired by either registration under the Legislation or by use in relation to particular goods or service.
  • Devices, including fancy devices or symbols
  • Monograms
  • Combination of colors or even a single color in combination with a word or device
  • Shape of goods or their packaging
  • Marks constituting a 3- dimensional sign.
  • Sound marks when represented in conventional notation or described in words by being graphically represented.

WHO CAN APPLY FOR A TRADEMARK

A person who claims to be  the proprietor of the trademark can apply for the registration of its mark for goods as well services.

A person may apply for registration of a trade mark to the Trademark office under whose jurisdiction the principal place of the business of the applicant in India falls.

In case, the principal place of business is outside India, then the application can be filed in the Trademark office under whose jurisdiction the office of the lawyer appointed by you is located.

In case of a company about to be formed, anyone may apply in his name for subsequent assignment of the registration in the company’s favor.

Before making an application for registration it is prudent to conduct a trademark search in the Trademark office in context of the already registered trademarks to ensure that registration may not be denied in view of resemblance of the proposed mark to an existing one or prohibited one.

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF TRADEMARK IN INDIA

The legal requirements to register a trade mark under the Legislation are:

  • The selected mark should be capable of being represented graphically (that is in the paper form).
  • It should be capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one undertaking from those of others.
  • It should be used or proposed to be used mark in relation to goods or services for the purpose of indicating or so as to indicate a connection in the course of trade between the goods or services and some person have the right to use the mark with or without identity of that person.

Geographical Indication
BENEFITS OF TRADEMARK REGISTRATION

The registration of a trade mark confers upon the owner the exclusive right to the use of the registered trade mark and indicate so by using the symbol (R) in relation to the goods or services in respect of which the mark is registered and seek the relief of infringement in appropriate courts in the country. The exclusive right is however subject to any conditions entered on the register such as limitation of area of use etc. Also, where two or more persons have registered identical or nearly similar mark due to special circumstances such exclusive right does not operate against each other.

REMEDIES FOR INFRINGEMENT OF TRADEMARK IN INDIA

Two types of remedies are available to the owner of a trademark for unauthorized use of his or her mark or its imitation by a third party. These remedies are:

  • an action for infringement’ in case of a registered trademark; and
  • an action for passing off’ in the case of an unregistered trademark

 

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SEZ (Special Economic Zone) :: SSC CGL Study Material : Tier 1

SEZ (Special Economic Zone) :: SSC CGL Study Material : Tier 1

SEZ

Introduction-

A special economic zone (SEZ) refers to designated areas in countries that possess special economic regulations that are different from other areas in the same country. Moreover, these regulations tend to contain measures that are conducive to foreign direct investment. Conducting business in a SEZ usually means that a company will receive tax incentives and the opportunity to pay lower tariffs.

India was one of the first in Asia to recognize the effectiveness of the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) model in promoting exports, with Asia’s first EPZ set up in Kandla in 1965. With a view to overcome the shortcomings experienced on account of the multiplicity of controls and clearances; absence of world-class infrastructure, and an unstable fiscal regime and with a view to attract larger foreign investments in India, the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) Policy was announced in April 2000.

SEZs are controlled by a three tier Organizational Set-up described as under:

  • Supreme controlling body in the Department is known as The Board of Approval
  • At district level, The Unit Approval Committee tackles with SEZs development and other associated issues
  • Every district is led by a Development Commissioner, who also controls the Unit Approval Committee.

Definition-

The operating definition of a SEZ is determined individually by each country. According to the World Bank in 2008, the modern day special economic zone typically includes a “geographically delimited area, usually physically secured (fenced-in); single management/administration; eligibility for benefits based upon physical location within the zone; separate customs area (duty-free benefits) and streamlined procedures.”

The main objectives of the SEZ Act are:

(a) generation of additional economic activity

(b) promotion of exports of goods and services;

(c) promotion of investment from domestic and foreign sources;

(d) creation of employment opportunities;

(e) development of infrastructure facilities;

It is expected that this will trigger a large flow of foreign and domestic investment in SEZs, in infrastructure and productive capacity, leading to generation of additional economic activity and creation of employment opportunities.

The SEZ Act 2005 envisages key role for the State Governments in Export Promotion and creation of related infrastructure. A Single Window SEZ approval mechanism has been provided through a 19 member inter-ministerial SEZ Board of Approval (BoA). The applications duly recommended by the respective State Governments/UT Administration are considered by this BoA periodically. All decisions of the Board of approvals are with consensus.

The SEZ Rules provide for different minimum land requirement for different class of SEZs. Every SEZ is divided into a processing area where alone the SEZ units would come up and the non-processing area where the supporting infrastructure is to be created.

The SEZ Rules provide for:

  • “Simplified procedures for development, operation, and maintenance of the Special Economic Zones and for setting up units and conducting business in SEZs;
  • Single window clearance for setting up of an SEZ;
  • Single window clearance for setting up a unit in a Special Economic Zone;
  • Single Window clearance on matters relating to Central as well as State Governments;
  • Simplified compliance procedures and documentation with an emphasis on self certification

Types

  1. Free trade zones(FTZ)

It is a tax free area that provides essential facilities for trading, shipping, import, and export business. By operating in such area, rules and regulation on tariffs, labour, and environment might be exempted or reduced or less controlled.

  1. Export processing zones (EPZ)

Export Processing Zones (EPZs) can be summarized as a unit bearing clusters of specially designed zones of aggressive economic activity for the promotion of export. The main concept of Export Processing Zones was conceived in the early 1970s to promote the growth of the sickening export business of India. Export Processing Zones (EPZs) also encompasses pre-defined infrastructural facilities and regulations pertaining to establishment of such zones and environmental stipulations, respectively. These Export Processing Zones of India were established to help the growth of Indian export commodities, especially from the fast growing sectors. –

  1. Free Zones/ free economic zones (FZ/ FEZ),

Free economic zones (FEZ) or free zones (FZ) are a class of special economic zone (SEZ) designated by the trade and commerce administrations of various countries. The term is used to designate areas in which companies are taxed very lightly or not at all to encourage economic activity. The taxation rules are determined by each country.

  1. Industrial parks/ industrial estates (IE)

An industrial park (also known as industrial estate, trading estate) is an area zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development. An industrial park can be thought of as a more “heavyweight” version of a business park or office park, which has offices and light industry, rather than heavy industry.

  1. Free ports

A free port   is a port or other area with relaxed jurisdiction of customs or related national regulations. Most commonly a free port is a special customs area or small customs territory with generally less strict customs regulations (or no customs duties and/or controls for transshipment). Earlier in history, some free ports like Hong Kong enjoyed political autonomy. Many international airports have free ports, though they tend to be called customs areas, customs zones, or international zones.

  1. Bonded logistics parks(BLP)

A Bonded logistics park is a type of special economic zone. Trade arrangements are similar to that of a bonded warehouse but over a specific geographic area. Sometimes with international port capabilities. Goods may be stored, manipulated, or undergo manufacturing operations without payment of duty.

  1. Urban enterprise zones

An Urban Enterprise Zone is an area in which policies to encourage economic growth and development are implemented. Urban Enterprise Zone policies generally offer tax concession, infrastructure incentives, and reduced regulations to attract investments and private companies into the zones.

How a SEZ is created?

There is a well defined approval mechanism for SEZ. The developer submits the proposal for establishment of SEZ to the concerned State Government.

  • The net worth of the applicant is to be Rs. 50 crore minimum and investment criterion of Rs. 250 Crore for sector specific SEZ. Net worth for Multiproduct SEZ was fixed Rs. 250 Crore and investment of ` 1000 Crore.

The State Government has to forward the proposal with its recommendation within 45 days from the date of receipt of such proposal to the Board of Approval. However, the applicant also has the option to submit the proposal directly to the Board of Approval. The Board of Approval has been constituted by the Central Government in exercise of the powers conferred under the SEZ Act. All the decisions are taken in the Board of Approval by consensus. The Board of Approval has 19 Members. The Chairman of the BoA is Secretary, Department of Commerce. The Board may approve as such or modify and approve a proposal for establishment of a Special Economic Zone, in accordance with the SEZ Rules, subject to the requirements of minimum area of land and other terms and conditions indicated in the SEZ Rules. Once the BOA gives formal approval and the concerned Development Commissioner gives an inspection report certifying the contiguity and vacancy of the area, the area is notified as SEZ.

sez
Administrative Set Up For Sezs:

SEZs is governed by a three tier administrative set up

  1. a) The Board of Approval is the apex body in the Department,
  2. b) The Unit Approval Committee at the Zonal level dealing with approval of units in the SEZs and other related issues, and
  3. c) Each Zone is headed by a Development Commissioner, who also heads the Unit Approval Committe

Who can set up a SEZ?

  • Private
  • Public
  • Private/Public
  • State Government
  • State Government Agencies

Who monitors SEZs?

An appointed committee of State govt. representative or a Development Commissioner is responsible to monitor the performance of SEZ on annual basis.

The Life Cycle of a SEZ

Anybody who wishes to develop a SEZ submits a proposal to the Board of Approval (BoA). A Single Window approval mechanism has been provided through a 19 member inter ministerial Board of Approval (BoA), headed by the Secretary, Department of Commerce.

The BoA then grants an ‘in-principle’ or a ‘formal’ approval.

The Central Government issues a notification when the developer proves the possession, contiguity and irrevocable rights on Land. These are called ‘Notified SEZs’

BoA allows the Developer for authorised operation. The SEZs that start operations are called ‘Operational SEZs’

Developer/Units are allowed various Tax Concessions/exemptions for effecting Exports

Drawbacks:

The biggest challenges faced by SEZ’s in today’s scenario are the taking away of agricultural land from the farmers. The farmers are being paid disproportionate money which is not in lieu of the current land prices. The best example could be seen in the case of farmers from Kalinganagar in Orissa where the money given was disproportionate to as high as 1:10 with respect to the market rates. Moreover SEZ’s are leading to decrease in crop production (arable Land Grabbing!) thus slowing down of agricultural activity in the country. (Though it may help boost it in other ways by increased export of local goods, both processed and non-processed). More and more farmers are moving towards the lucrative manufacturing side in search of greater economic security. Moreover the greatest problem that seems to be emerging out is that arable land is being used for non agricultural purpose which could lead to food crisis and loss of self sustenance in future. For example: Nadigram district of West Bengal. But FDI could also help in providing our farmers to gain access to technological better farming methods.

Conclusion:

The SEZ’s could drastically improve the economic activity in the country, make the country’s export competitive and globally noticeable, be net foreign exchange earner and provide immense employment opportunity. But this should not be done at the cost of bringing down the agricultural activities, Land grabbing and real estate mafia should be properly regulated so that the common man is not the net sufferer to get the net foreign exchange earner up and running. As compared to china where majority of the SEZ’s were setup by the government, similar should be adopted in India, if not fully it should be a public-private partnership and regulatory bodies should be properly managed to weed out fallacies. To be economically viable SEZ’s should be approved over a particular land area (greater than 1000 acres) for rapid economic growth in the area and for it to be profitable and self sustainable. Relaxed Tax norms, Labor laws and DTA regulations will surely attract foreign investment and major industries to setup industries in the SEZ’s making it profitable and meeting its desired results!

sez
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Economics MCQ with explanation for SSC CGL 2018 tier 1

Economics MCQ with explanation for SSC CGL 2018 tier 1

Q1.‘Capital gains’ refers to goods which

पूंजीगत लाभ का सम्बद्ध किस समान से है ?

(a) serve as a source of raising further capital/जो पूजी को और बढ़ाने का साधन  होते है।

(b) help in the further production of goods/जो समान के और  अधिक  उत्पादन  में  सहायक होते है।

(c) directly go into the satisfaction of human wants/जो मनुष्य  की मागो की  प्रत्यक्स रूप  से पूर्ति  करते है।

(d) find multiple uses/जो विविध  प्रयोगों को खोजते है।

Q2.The President can dismiss a member of the Council of Ministers?

राष्टपति मंत्रीपरिषद के सदस्य को कैसे बर्खाश्त कर सकते है ?

(a) with the consent of the Speaker/लोकसभा अध्य्क्ष की सहमति से

(b) only under emergency conditions/आपात स्थिति में

(c) on the recommendation of the Prime Minister/प्रधानमंत्री की सिफारिश पर

(d) on his own/अपनी स्वयं की और से

Q3.Securities and Exchange Board of India is a

सेक्युरटीज़ एंड एक्सचेंज  और इंडिया क्या है ?

(a) Quasi Judicial body/ कासी जुडिशल बॉडी

(b) Regulatory Body/रेगुलेटरी बॉडी

(c) Advisory Body/सहलाकर बॉडी

(d) Consititutional Body/संवैधानिक बॉडी

Q4.Which parliamentary committee in India is normally chaired by a prominent member of the opposition?

भारत में किस अध्यक्षता  विपक्ष के प्रमुख सदस्य द्वारा की जाती है ?

(a) Committee on Government Assurances/सरकारी आस्वासन सबंधी समिति

(b) Estimates Committee/विशेषाधिकार समिति

(c) Privileges Committee/पब्लिक लेखा समिति

(d) Public Accounts Committee/लोक लेखा समिति

Q5.From the national point of view, which of the following indicates micro approach?

राष्ट्रीय दृष्टिकोण से निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा सूक्ष्म दृष्टिकोण होता है ?

(a) Study of sales of mobile phones by BSNL/बी.एस.एन.एल. द्वारा मोबाइल फोन की बिक्री का अध्ययन

(b) Unemployement among Women/माहिलाओ में  बेरोजगारी

(c) Per capita income in India/भारत में  प्रति  व्यक्ति  आय

(d) Inflation in India/भारत में मुद्रा  स्फीति

Q6.Money market is a market for _______________

पूंजी बाजार किसके लिए होता है?

(a) Short term fund/ अल्पकालिक कोष

(b) Long term fund/दीर्घ कालिक कोष

(c) Negotiable instruments/परक्राम्य लिखत

(d) Sale of shares/शेयरों की बिक्री

Q7.India shares longest international boundary with which country?

भारत निम्नलिखित में से किस देश के साथ सबसे लम्बी अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय सीमा को साझा करता है?

(a) Bangladesh/बंगलादेश

(b) China/चीन

(c) Nepal/नेपाल

(d) Bhutan/भूटान

Q8.The Residuary powers of legislation under Indian Constitution rests with

भारतीय सविंधान के आधीन विधान की अवशिष्ट शक्तियाँ किसमे निहित है?

(a) President/ राष्ट्रपति

(b) Prime Minister/प्रधानमंत्री

(c) Parliament/संसद

(d) States/राज्य

Q9.Appointments for all India Services are made by

अखिल भारतीय सेवाओं के लिए नियुक्तियां कौन करता है?

(a) UPSC/संघ लोक सेवा आयोग

(b) President/ राष्ट्रपति

(c) Prime Minister/प्रधानमंत्री

(d) Parliament/संसद

Q10.Fixed Foreign Exchange Rate can be changed by

नियत विदेशी मुद्रा की दर को कौन बदल सकता है?

(a) RBI/भारतीय रिजर्व बैंक.

(b) SEBI/सेबी

(c) Ministry of Finance/वित्त मंत्रालय

(d) FIPB/एफ. आई. पी. बी.

Q11.Which institution is known as ‘Soft Loan Window’ of World Bank?

कौन सी संस्था को विश्व बैंक केसुलभ कर्ज़ विंडोके नाम से जाना जाता है?

(a) IDBI/ भारतीय आद्योगिक विकास बैंक

(b) IDA/आई डी ए

(c) IMF/अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय मुद्रा कोष

(d) RBI/भारतीय रिजर्व बैंक

Economics MCQ
Q12.Which curve shows the inverse relationship between unemployment and inflation rates

कौन सा वक्र बेरोजगारी और मुद्रा स्फीतिदर के सम्बंध को प्रतिलोमतः दर्शाता है?

(a) Supply curve/ पूर्ति वक्र

(b) Indifference curve/अनाधिमन वक्र

(c) IS curve/आई एस वक्र

(d) Phillips curve/फिलिप्स वक्र

Q13.Which one of the following Committees is described as the ‘twin sister’ of the Estimates Committee?

निम्नलिखित में से कौन सी समिति को प्राक्लन समिति की जुड़वां बहन खा जाता है?

(a) Public Accounts Committee/ लोक लेखा समिति

(b) Committee on Public Undertakings/सार्वजनिक उपक्रम समिति

(c) Departmental Standing Committee/विभागीय स्थायी समिति

(d) Privilege Committee/विशेषाधिकार समिति

Q14.Short term contractions and expansions in economic activity are called ______________

आर्थिक किर्याकलापो में अल्प कालिक संकुंचन और विस्तार को क्या कहते है?

(a) Expansions/ विस्तार

(b) Recession/मंदी

(c) Deficits/घाटा

(d) The business cycle/व्यवसाय चक्र

Q15.Who appoints the Finance Commission in India?

भारत के वित्त आयोग की नियुक्ति कौन करता है ?

(a) Governor, R.B.I./ गवर्नर, भारतीय रिजर्व बैंक

(b) CAG of India/भारत के नियंत्रक एवं महालेखा परीक्षक

(c) President of India/ राष्ट्रपति

(d) Central Finance Minister/केन्द्रीय वित्त मंत्रालय

Q16.The term ‘Macro Economics’ was used by __________ .

व्रह्त अर्थशास्त्रशब्द का प्रयोग किसने किया था?

(a) J.M. Keynes/जे.एम्.केन्स

(b) Ragner Frisch/रागनेर फ्रिस्क

(c) Ragner Nurkse/रागनेर न्यूक्स

(d) Prof. Knight/प्रो.नाइट

Q17.Tax on inheritance is called __________ .

पैतृक सम्पत्ति पर जो कर कगता है उसे क्या कहते है?

(a) Excise duty/ उत्पाद कर

(b) Estate duty/जायदाद कर

(c) Gift tax/उपहार कर

(d) Sales tax/बिक्री कर

Q18. Which of the following constitutional Amendment Act, deals with the Elementry Education as a Fundamental Right?

निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा संविधान अधिनियम प्रारम्भिक शिक्षा के मूल अधिकार के रूप में होने से सम्बन्धित है?

(a) 84th Amendment Act/84th वा सविधान संशोधन अधिनियम

(b) 85th Amendment Act/85th  वा सविधान संशोधन अधिनियम

(c) 86th Amendment Act/86th वा सविधान संशोधन अधिनियम

(d) 87th Amendment Act/87th वा सविधान संशोधन अधिनियम

Q19.Special drawing right were created by

विशेष आहरण अधिकार किसने बनाये थे?

(a)IBRD/अंतरराष्ट्रीय पुननिर्माण व विकास बैंक

(b)ADB/एशियन विकास बैंक

(c)IMF/अंतरराष्ट्रीय मुद्रा कोष

(d)WTO/विश्व व्यापार संगठन

Q20.What do You mean  by “ density of  Populations ”

जनसँख्याघनत्वसे आप क्या समझते है?

(a)Ratio of people living below poverty line to total populations/ गरीबी रेखा से नीचे रहने वाले लोगों का कुल जनसँख्या से अनुपात

(b)Numbers of person live per square  Kilometers/प्रति वर्ग कि.मी. में रहने वाले लोगों कि संख्या

(c)Numbers of  person in a city/किसी शहर में रहने वाले व्यक्तियों कि संख्या

(d)Numbers of person  live per kilometres/ प्रति कि.मी. रहने वाले व्यक्तियों की संख्या

Q21.Which of the following  is not  a features of the capitalist economy ?

निम्नलिखित में से कौनसी पूँजीवादी अर्थव्यवस्था की विशेषता नही है?

(a)Right to Private property/ निजी सम्पति का अधिकार

(b)Existence  of Competitions/प्रतियोगिता होना

(c)Service Motive/सेवा-प्रयोजन

(d)Freedom of choice consumers/उपभोक्ताओं को चुनाव की स्वतन्त्रता

Q22.In the 42nd Constitutional Amendment 1976, which word was added to the Preamble?

42 वे संविधान संसोधन ,1976 द्वारा प्रस्तावना में कौन सा शब्द जोड़ा  गया  ?

(a) Democratic/लोकतांत्रिक

(b) Equality/समता

(c) Secular /धर्म निरपेक्षᅠ

(d) Socialist /समाजवादी

Q23.If Reserve Bank of India reduces the cash reserve ratio, it will :

यदि भारतीय रिज़र्व  बैंक नगद रिज़र्व  अनुपात कम करती है तो क्या परीणाम  होगा ?

(a) increase credit creation/ऋण  सृजन बढ़ेया

(b) decrease credit creation/ऋण सृजन घटेगा

(c) have no impact on credit creation/ऋण सृजन  पर  कोई प्रभाव नहीं  पड़ेगा

(d) have no definite impact on credit creation/ऋण सृजन  पर  कोई निश्चित   प्रभाव नहीं  पड़ेगा

Economics MCQ
Q24. Inflation is a situation characterized by

मुद्रा स्फीति  में निम्नलिखित  में से कौन सी स्थिति  होती है ?

(a) Too much money chasing too few goods/कम वस्तु  पर  अधिक  मुद्रा व्यय

(b) Too few money chasing too much goods/अत्यधिक जन और अल्प मात्रा में वस्तु

(c) Too many people chasing too few goods/अत्यधिक जन और अल्प मुद्रा व्यय

(d) Too many people chasing too little money/अत्यधिक जन और अल्प मात्रा में मुद्रा

Q25.0ne of the following is ‘Labour’ in Economics.

निम्न में से एक अर्थशास्त्रश्रमीक ‘  कहलाता है , वह कौन है ?

(a) A Musician performing for a benefit fund/कोई  संगीतकार जो किसी सुविधा निधि के लिए कार्यकर्म में भाग ले रहा हो

(b) A Painter working for his own pleasure/कोई चित्रकार जो अपने  खुद की खुशी के लिए काम कर रहा है

(c) Reading a book as a hobby/शौक के रूप में एक किताब पढ़ने  वाला

(d) A Mather teaching her own son/अपने  पुत्र को पढ़ाने वाली माँ

 

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