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Animal-reproduction-theory Biology-day-7 Target-ssc-cgl-2018

Animal-reproduction-theory Biology-day-7 Target-ssc-cgl-2018

Animal-reproduction-theory Biology-day-7 Target-ssc-cgl-2018

Reproduction In Animals

The production of mew organisms from the existing ones of the same species is called reproduction.

Methods of reproduction:-

There are two main methods of reproduction:

  • Asexual reproduction- The production of new organisms from a single parent without the involvement of sex cells is called asexual reproduction.
  • Sexual reproduction- The production of new organisms by using sex cells is called sexual reproduction.

Gametes:

The cells involved in sexual reproduction are called gametes. They are of two types

  • Sperm (in males) – It has a head, mid piece and a tail. It is a single cell. The nucleus of the cell is packed tightly in the head, the middle piece is for the storage of food and tail helps in the movement of the sperm.  Sperm is the short form of the word ‘spermatozoon.’
  • Ovum (in females) – It is a single cell. It has a jelly coat which allows only one sperm to enter.

The fusion of male and female gametes leads to the formation of zygote.

Animal-reproduction-theory
Fertilisation:

The fusion of male (sperm) and female (ovum) gamete to form a zygote during sexual reproduction is called fertilisation.

Internal and external fertilisation:

The fertilisation which takes place inside the female body is called internal fertilisation. In this kind of fertilisation male animals put their sperms inside her body. These sperms then fertilise inside her body.

The fertilisation which takes place outside the female busy is called external fertilisation. The male and female animals leave their eggs and sperms in water and fertilisation occurs with the help of collisions.

Sexual Reproduction in Animals:

Sexual reproduction in animals takes place  by the following steps…

  • Male gametes (sperm) and female gametes (eggs) are produced.
  • The nucleus of sperm fuses with the nucleus of egg and thus formation of zygote takes place. This process is called fertilisation.
  • Embryo grows and becomes foetus. Foetus further grows to form a baby animal.

Sexual Reproduction in Humans:

Male Reproductive system

The main parts of male reproductive system are…

  • Testes : Testes is the organ where male gametes or sperms are made. There are two testes in the male human body.
  • Scrotal sac : Skin bags which covers each testes are called scrotal sacs. Since testes works efficiently at a temperature below the normal body temperature, thus they are present on the outer side of the human body.
  • Epididymis : The sperms are stored temporarily in the epididymis.
  • Sperm ducts : Long tube which takes sperms from epididymis to the seminal vesicles.
  • Seminal vesicles : Sperms gets stored in seminal vesicles and a long tube called urethra carries the sperm to penis.
  • Penis : Penis passes the sperms from male body to the female body.

Female Reproductive system

The main parts of female reproductive system are…

  • Ovaries : Ovary is the organ where female gametes or eggs are made. There are two ovaries in the female human body.
  • Oviducts : In the oviduct, ovaries release one mature egg every 28 days. Fertilisation of egg by a sperm takes place in oviduct.
  • Uterus : The growth and development of a baby takes place in uterus.
  • Vagina : Vagina receives penis to receive sperm into the woman’s body.

In Vitro Fertilisation:

The oviduct of some women can be blocked due to various reasons. This prevents the fertilisation. To solve this problem, a method, known as in vitro fertilisation is used. Process of in vitro fertilisation…

Eggs are removed from the ovary of woman by laproscopy. The sperm is provided by the husband.

The sperms are mixed with eggs in a glass dish to carry out fertilisation. The fertilised eggs develops into embryos.

After about a week, the embryo gets placed into the uterus and further process is same as normal pregnancy.

Babies born by this method are called test tube babies.

Viviparous animals and oviparous animals

Viviparous animals…animals that produce young ones.

Oviparous animals…animals that lay eggs.

Metamorphosis

Metamorphosis is the process in which the immature form of an animal like larva transforms into adult form. Frogs, silk moth etc.  grow by metamorphosis.

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Asexual reproduction is the process by which a new organism is produced by a single parent. The methods of asexual reproduction are…

Binary fission :

In binary fission, a single parent divides into two parts and forms two new organisms. Amoeba and paramecium reproduce by binary fission.

Budding :

In this process, a small part of the parent organism grow out as a ‘bud’. This bud then detaches and grow as an organism. Hydra, sponges and corals reproduce by budding.

CLONING

In cloning, animals are reproduced by asexual reproduction. An animal which is genetically identical to its parent is called a clone. In cloning, the nucleus of the cell is transferred. Dolly sheep was the first animal to be cloned.

Animal-reproduction-theory
 

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