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Animal-nutrition-theory Biology-day-2 Target-ssc-cgl-2018

Animal-nutrition-theory Biology-day-2 Target-ssc-cgl-2018

Animal-nutrition-theory Biology-day-2 Target-ssc-cgl-2018


Unlike plants, animals cannot make their food by their own. They depend on plants or other organisms which eat plants for their food. The process of taking in food and the utilisation of its nutrients by the animal is called animal nutrition. Animal nutrition is a complex process. It includes following steps.

  • Ingestion : The process of taking food into the body.
  • Digestion : The process in which large components of food are broken into small components.
  • Absorption : The process of passing of food from the  intestinal  wall to the blood stream.
  • Assimilation : The process by which the absorbed food is taken in by body cells and is used for energy, growth and repair.
  • Egestion : The process in which the undigested food is removed from the body.


Methods of ingestion

Different organisms have different structures for taking food. The frog and the chameleon catch its prey by its long tongue. Butterfly uses its long feeding tube to suck nectar from flowers. Starfish feed on sea animals which are covered by hard shells of calcium carbonate.



Digestion means, dissolving of solid food. In digestion, both physical and chemical methods are used to break the food into smaller components.

Alimentary canal

A long tube which starts from the mouth of an organism and ends at his anus is called alimentary tube. The digestion and absorption of food takes place in alimentary canal.

The process by which the food moves in the alimentary canal is known as peristalsis.

The various organs of the human digestive system are….

  • Mouth :  Food is taken into the body through mouth. Mouth contains tongue teeth and salivary glands which starts digesting food as soon as we keep it in mouth. Salivary glands secrete a watery liquid known as saliva. This saliva gets mixed with the food and then the food is swallowed by the tongue.
  • Oesophgus : The food coming from mouth is moved down to stomach through oesophagus.
  • Stomach : Stomach secretes mucus, hydrochloric acid and digestive juices. HCl kills any bacteria that may be present in the food.
  • Small intestine : In small intestine, food is digested completely and nutrients are absorbed. Here, liver secretes bile, pancreas secretes pancreatic juice and walls of small intestine secrete intestinal juice. Bile helps in the digestion of fats. Pancreatic breaks down fats, starch carbohydrates and proteins into smaller and simpler components.

The small intestine has millions of tiny outgrowths called villi. Villi increases the surface area for the rapid absorption of digested food. Food that remained undigested and unabsorbed passes through small intestine to large intestine.

  • Large intestine : Large intestine absorbs most of the water from the undigested food.
  • Rectum : This undigested food is stored in the last part of the intestine called rectum.
  • Anus : The undigested food is passed out from our body through anus in the form of faeces.



There are four types of teeth in our mouth.

  • Incisors….for biting and cutting the food. There are 8 incisor teeth.
  • Canines…for piercing and tearing the food. There are 4 canine teeth.
  • Premolars…for chewing and grinding the food. There are 8 premolar teeth.
  • Molars…for chewing and grinding the food. There are 12 molar teeth.

Molar teeth are not present in the milk or temporary set of teeth.



Following are the functions of tongue…

  • Mixes saliva with food during chewing.
  • Helps in swallowing the food.
  • Helps in getting the taste of food.
  • Helps in talking.

Nutrition in amoeba

Amoeba is the simplest animal. Amoeba has a cell membrane, a round, dense nucleus, and many bubble like vacuoles in its cytoplasm. The vacuoles in amoeba are of two types: food vacuoles and contractile vacuoles. A food vacuole consists of a bubble of water which contains food particles captured by amoeba. The contractile vacuole controls the amount of water present in its body. Amoeba has no fixed shape.


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