Last One-Year Topic-International Affairs, Current Affairs- 2020-21
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Last One year Current Affairs MCQs
Q1.संयुक्त राष्ट्र ने किस देश के साथ पेरिस समझौते की पांचवीं वर्षगांठ पर एक वैश्विक जलवायु शिखर सम्मेलन की मेजबानी की है?
Q1. The United Nation hosted a global climate summit on the anniversary of the Paris Agreement with which country?
- UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres and the UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson hosted a global climate summit on the eve of the fifth anniversary of the Paris Agreement.
- This summit is organized after an announcement that China would peak greenhouse emissions in 2030 and attempt to go carbon neutral by 2060.
Q2.दुनिया के सबसे प्रदूषित शहरों की सूची में किस शहर ने शीर्ष स्थान प्राप्त किया है?
(b) नई दिल्ली
Q2. Which city has topped the list of the world's most polluted cities?
(b) New Delhi
- Pakistan's cultural capital Lahore has once again topped the list of world's most polluted cities.
- Lahore ranks the most polluted city in the world," according to air pollution data released by the US Air Quality Index
- According to the index, Lahore reported a particulate matter (PM) rating of 423.
- Lahore is not the only Pakistani city to feature in the top 10 list for the worst air quality. Pakistan’s largest city of Karachi ranked at 7 on the AQI.
- New Delhi came in second with a PM of 229, while Nepal's capital Kathmandu ranked the third-worst city with a PM of 178.
Q3. आनुवंशिक रूप से संशोधित (GMO) गेहूं के उपयोग को मंजूरी देने वाला कौन सा देश दुनिया का पहला देश बन गया है?
Q3. Which country has become the first country in the world to approve the use of genetically modified (GMO) wheat?
Argentina formally became the first country in the world to approve the use of drought-resistant genetically modified (GMO) wheat, prompting fierce criticism by the country's massive export agriculture industry.
- Argentina has approved HB4 drought–resistant GMO wheat by biotechnology firm Bioceres.
- It will only begin marketing HB4 once it’s approved for importation by Brazil.
- The HB4 technology provides seeds that are more tolerant to drought and helps minimize production losses.
Q4. भारतीय मूल के वेवल रामकलावन किस देश के नए राष्ट्रपति बने हैं?
Q4. Indian-origin Wavel Ramkalawan has become the new President of which country?
(b) Sri Lanka
- The Seychelles elected an opposition candidate; as president for the first time since 1977.
- Indian-origin Wavel Ramkalawan, reaffirmed a pledge to hike the minimum wage after Covid-19 stifled the tourism-dependent economy. Vice-President -Ahmed Afif
- Ramkalawan, a former Anglican priest, defeated President Danny Faure after three decades of unsuccessful runs for the presidency of the East African nation.
Q5.निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा देश ‘Five Eyes’ गठबंधन का हिस्सा नहीं है?
Q5. Which of the following countries is not a part of the ‘Five Eyes’ alliance?
(b) New Zealand
- Foreign ministers from the United States, Australia, Britain, Canada and New Zealand have urged China to reconsider its actions against Hong Kong’s elected legislature and immediately reinstate the Legislative Council members
- In a statement, the group of five countries also known as the ‘Five Eyes’ alliance said that China’s imposition of new rules to disqualify elected legislators in Hong Kong appeared to be part of a campaign to silence critics.
- They have called on Beijing to reverse its decision.Hong Kong expelled four opposition members from its legislature last week after Beijing gave city authorities new powers to curb dissent.
Q6.विश्व बैंक की पूर्व अर्थशास्त्री माया सँडू किस देश की पहली महिला राष्ट्रपति बनी हैं?
Q6. Former World Bank economist Maia Sandu has become the first woman President of which country?
- Former World Bank economist Maia Sandu (48 years) from Party of Action and Solidarity has been elected President of Moldova.
- She won Moldova’s 2020 Presidential election with 57.72% of the vote.
- She is the first woman to be elected as the President of Moldova and will assume office on 23rd December 2020.
- Incumbent President of Moldova, Igor Dodon received 42.28% of the vote.
Q7.भारत ने किस देश के साथ OECD म्यूचुअल एग्रीमेंट प्रक्रिया 2019 पुरस्कार जीता है?
Q7. India along with which country has won the OECD Mutual Agreement Procedure 2019 Award?
- India-Japan cooperation has won the OECD Mutual Agreement Procedure 2019 Award.
- This was announced on the occasion of Second Tax Certainty day by OECD
- India with Japan has won the 2019 Award on Co-operation for highest agreement ratio for a pair of jurisdictions for transfer pricing cases.
- The Award to India-Japan Mutual Agreement Procedure (MAP) Cooperation demonstrates India's commitment to provide tax certainty and efficacious dispute resolution mechanism for the Japanese companies doing business in India.
Q8.ग्रीन क्लाइमेट फंड ने हाल ही में किस देश के ग्रीनहाउस गैस उत्सर्जन कटौती लक्ष्य को पूरा करने के लिए $ 256 मिलियन अनुदान की मंजूरी दी है?
Q8. The Green Climate Fund has recently approved dollar 256 million in grants to meet the GreenHouse Gas emission reduction target of which country?
(c) Sri Lanka
- The Green Climate Fund has approved dollar 256 million for Bangladesh in grants and loans to meet its Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction targets under the Paris agreement.
- The financing is provided as an integrated package for textile and Ready Made Garments (RMG) sectors of Bangladesh are the largest industrial contributors in carbon emission.
Q9.त्रिस्तान दा कुन्हा द्वीप को अटलांटिक महासागर में सबसे बड़ा संरक्षित समुद्री भंडार घोषित किया गया है। यह किस देश का हिस्सा है?
Q9. Tristan da Cunha island has been declared the largest protected marine reserves in the Atlantic Ocean. It is a constituent part of which country?
(a) New Zealand
- The isolated UK Overseas Territory of Tristan da Cunha, which is home to the world’s most remote human settlement, declared the largest fully protected marine reserves in the Atlantic Ocean at 687,000 square kilometres.
- This will close over 90 percent of their waters to harmful activities such as bottom-trawling fishing, sand extraction and deep-sea mining.
- Tristan da Cunha is a remote group of volcanic islands in the south Atlantic Ocean.
- It is the most remote inhabited archipelago in the world
- Tristan da Cunha is a British Overseas Territory with its own constitution
Q10.किस समूह ने STI (Science, Technology and Innovation) घोषणा 2020 को अपनाया है?
(c) G 20
(d) G 7
Q10. Which group of countries has adopted STI (Science, Technology and Innovation) Declaration 2020?
(c) G 20
(d) G 7
The 8th BRICS Science, Technology and Innovation Ministerial meeting unanimously has adopted BRICS STI Declaration 2020.
The meeting was held through a virtual platform.
Science and Technology cooperation among the member countries Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa was discussed in the meeting
During the meeting, Science and Technology Minister Dr Harsh Vardhan highlighted that the COVID 19 pandemic has been a test, demonstrating that multilateral cooperation is the key to overcoming such global challenges.
Q11.किस देश ने GIFT सिटी विकसित करने के लिए भारत के साथ साझेदारी पर हस्ताक्षर किए हैं?
Q11. Which country has signed a partnership with India to develop GIFT City?
- The United Kingdom has entered into a strategic partnership to develop India’s first International Financial Services Centre- GIFT City (Gujarat International Finance Tec-City) Gandhinagar
- It has also agreed to set up a new Fund of Funds to be managed by the State Bank of India (SBI) group in order to route the U.K.’s future capital investments into India.
Q12. किस देश ने में एक भूमिगत परमाणु सुविधा का निर्माण शुरू किया है?
(a) उत्तर कोरिया
Q12. Which country has recently started building an underground nuclear facility?
(a) North Korea
- IAEA, the United Nations’ atomic watchdog, has confirmed that Iran has started building an underground nuclear facility.
- According to IAEA, Iran has stockpiled low-enriched Uranium, but it doesn’t appear to possess enough to produce a nuclear weapon.
- Iran had a nuclear facility at Natanz, but it got destroyed in July. After that, Iran stated it would build a more secure nuclear facility around Natanz.
- In 2015 a landmark deal was agreed between Iran and world powers known as the P5+1 for a joint Comprehensive Plan of Action. It had allowed Iran to produce a certain amount of uranium.
Q13. किस देश ने पंज तीरथ के हिंदू धार्मिक स्थल को राष्ट्रीय धरोहर घोषित किया है?
Q13. Which country has declared Hindu religious site of Panj Tirath a national heritage?
- Pakistan is all set to throw open the doors of a historical temple to Panj Tirath Temple in Peshawar for Indian pilgrims this year.
- It recently declared Panj Tirath a national heritage.
- It is believed that on this site Pandavas lived for a while during their exile.
- Currently, there are five pools in the temple premises that are being restored to meet the deadline of January inauguration.
Q14.किस देश के राष्ट्रपति अल्फा कॉनडे ने तीसरा कार्यकाल के लिए जीत हासिल की है?
Q14. Which country’s President; Alpha Conde has won the third term in Office?
- Guinea’s president, Alpha Condé, has won a controversial third term with 59.49% of the vote.
- His victory came amid widespread protests that were violently suppressed by security forces.
- Such demonstrations have occurred for months after the government changed the constitution through a national referendum, allowing Condé to extend his decade in power.
Q15. राष्ट्रपति की शक्तियों का विस्तार करने के लिए किस देश ने अक्टूबर 2020 में अपने संविधान में एक संशोधन को मंजूरी दी है?
Q15.Which country passed an amendment to expand the powers of the President, in October 2020?
(b) Sri Lanka
The Sri Lankan Parliament recently passed the 20th Amendment of Sri Lankan constitution.
The 20th amendment of the Sri Lankan Constitution has expanded the powers of the President and also has increased the immunity of the President.
Under the 20th amendment, the President gets the power to dissolve the parliament after two years and six months after being elected. It has weakened the powers of the prime minister.
Q16.साद अल-हरीरी को किस देश के नए प्रधानमंत्री के रूप में नामित किया गया है?
Q16.Saad al-Hariri has been designated as the new Prime Minister of which country?
- Lebanon's President Michel Aoun designated Sunni Muslim politician Saad al-Hariri as prime minister to form a new government to tackle the worst crisis since the country's 1975-1990 civil war.
- Hariri won the backing of a majority of parliamentarians in consultations with Aoun.
- He faces major challenges to navigate Lebanon's power-sharing politics and agree to a cabinet, which must then address a mounting list of woes: a banking crisis, currency crash, rising poverty and crippling state debts.
Q17.भारत की सहायता से निर्मित मंगदेछु जलविद्युत परियोजना किस देश में प्रतिष्ठित ब्रूनल पदक से सम्मानित की गई है?
Q17. India-assisted Mangdechhu hydroelectric project in which country has been awarded the prestigious Brunel Medal?
(d) Sri Lanka
- India-assisted Mangdechhu hydroelectric project in Bhutan has been awarded the prestigious Brunel Medal for excellence in civil engineering by the UK-based Institute of Civil Engineers.
- Prime Minister Narendra Modi had inaugurated the 720 MW project on August 17 last year during his visit to Bhutan.
- The run-of-river power plant, built on the Mangdechhu River in Trongsa Dzongkhag district of central Bhutan at a cost of Rs 4,500-crore, is seen as a symbol of friendship between the two countries.
Q18.फाइनेंशियल एक्शन टास्क फोर्स (FATF) एशिया पैसिफिक ग्रुप ने अपनी Enhanced Follow Up' सूची में किस देश को रखा है?
Q18.Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Asia Pacific group has kept which country in its ‘Enhanced Follow Up’ list?
(c) Sri Lanka
- Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Asia Pacific group has kept Pakistan in its ‘Enhanced Follow Up’ list.
- The organisation had downgraded Pakistan status from “regular follow-up” to “enhanced follow up”.
- The Asia-pacific group of FATF submitted its report called “Follow up report on mutual evaluation of Pakistan”.
- In the report, it was highlighted that the progress of Pakistan to combat the Financing of terror system and anti-money laundering made by the Financial Action Task Force has remained unchanged in 2020 as compared to that of 2019.
Q19.बिशर अल-खसावनेह किस देश के नए प्रधानमंत्री बन गए हैं?
Q19.Bishr al-Khasawneh has become the new Prime Minister of which country?
- King of Jordan, Abdullah II ibn Al Hussein has appointed Bishr al-Khasawneh, policy advisor to the king, as new Prime Minister of the country.
- His appointment comes after King Abdullah II bin Al Hussein accepted the resignation of Prime Minister Omar al Razzaz.
- He served as the advisor to the king for Communication and Coordination at The Royal Hashemite Court (April 2019- August 2020).
- He served as the Minister for Legal Affairs (2017- 2018).
Q20. मोहम्मद हुसैन रोबल किस देश के नए प्रधानमंत्री बन गए हैं?
Q20. Mohamed Hussein Roble has become the new Prime Minister of which country?
- Political newcomer Mohamed Hussein Roble has become Somalia's Prime minister after getting unanimous approval from lawmakers.
- Somali President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed was in attendance when all 215 members of parliament cast their votes in favor of his appointee.
- Roble is promising to create an effective government that addresses some of the key issues facing the country, including having fair presidential and parliamentary elections.
Q21.किस देश के पूर्व रक्षा मंत्री, बाह नडाव को अंतरिम राष्ट्रपति के रूप में चुना गया हैं?
Q21. Bah Ndaw’ the former defence minister of which country has become the interim President?
- Mali’s former defence minister, Bah Ndaw, has been named as president of the country’s new transition government.
- Colonel Assimi Goita, the leader of the National Committee for the Salvation of the People (CNSP) which overthrew Mali’s President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita, was appointed vice president.
- The transitional government is to be inaugurated on September 25.
- According to a plan backed by the military leaders, the new president is meant to lead the country for several months before staging elections and returning Mali to civilian rule
Q22. Sustainable development goals से जुड़े संप्रभु बांड जारी करने वाला पहला देश कौन सा देश बन गया है?
Q22. Which country has become the 1st country to issue sovereign bonds linked to sustainable development goals?
(b) New Zealand
- Mexico has become the first country in the world to issue a sovereign bond linked to the sustainable development goals set by the United Nations.
- It has raised EUR 750 million ($890 million) by such bonds.
- The SDG bond will mature in September 2027 and offers a yield to maturity rate of 1.603% and a coupon rate of 1.350%.
- This new bond was issued under Mexico’s new “SDG Sovereign Bond Framework,” which was released in partnership with French investment bank Natixis.
Q23.योशीहिदे सुगा किस देश के नए प्रधानमंत्री होंगे?
(b) दक्षिण कोरिया
Q23.Yoshihide Suga will be the new Prime Minister of which country?
(b) South Korea
- Japan's ruling party Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) has elected Yoshihide Suga as its leader to succeed Shinzo Abe.
- Shinzo Abe had resigned due to health problems.
- Yoshihide Suga will be the new Prime Minister of Japan. He is currently the chief Cabinet secretary of Abe's government.
- PM is elected from among Diet members.Japanese parliament is known with the name of Diet.
- As per the final count, Mr. Suga had secured 377 votes of a total of 534 votes.
- Yoshihide Suga will be replacing the long-serving Prime Minister of Japan Shinzo Abe, who had resigned in August 2020 due to health problems.
Q24.नवंबर 2020 में शंघाई सहयोग संगठन (SCO) देशों के प्रमुखों की परिषद के सम्मेलन की मेजबानी किस देश ने की है?
Q24. Which country hosted a summit of the council of heads of government of the SCO in November 2020?
- India hosted a summit of the council of heads of government of the SCO on November 30 with a focus on contributing to the trade and economic agenda of the influential grouping.
- India has been focusing on expanding its cooperation with the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), an eight-nation regional grouping that represents around 42 percent of the world's population and 20 percent of the global GDP.
Q25.किस देश ने विश्व का सबसे बड़ा सोलर ट्री विकसित किया है?
Q25. Which country has developed World’s largest Solar Tree?
- The CSIR-CMERI operating under the Ministry of Science and Technology has developed the World’s largest solar tree.
- CMERI-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute,Durgapur, West Bengal
- The tree has an annual capacity of generating 12,000 to 14,000 units of Clean and Green power.
- The Solar Tree has been designed in such a way that maximum exposure of each Solar PhotoVoltaic Panel is achieved.
- There are a total of 35 Solar PV panels in each tree. Each panel has a capacity of 330 watt-power.
- The cost of a solar tree is Rs 7.5 lakhs.
Q26.किस संगठन ने बेरूत के विरासत भवनों के पुनर्वास के लिए "बेरूत" पहल शुरू की है?
(b) विश्व आर्थिक मंच
(d) संयुक्त राष्ट्र शांति सेना
Q26. Which organization has launched the initiative "Beirut" for rehabilitating its heritage buildings?
(b) World Economic Forum
(d) United Nations Peacekeeping Forces
- Audrey Azoulay, director-general of UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), announced that UNESCO has launched the initiative "Beirut" to attract funds to be used in rehabilitating Beirut's heritage buildings
- UNESCO has previously warned that 640 heritage buildings have been damaged by the explosions and 60 of them are at risk of collapse.
Q27.किस देश में भारतीय चिकित्सक द्वारकानाथ कोटणीस की कांस्य प्रतिमा का अनावरण किया जायेगा?
Q27. The bronze statue of Indian doctor Dwarkanath Kotnis will be unveiled in which country ?
- A bronze statue of Indian doctor Dwarkanath Kotnis, who is revered in China for his contributions during the Chinese revolution headed by its founder Mao Zedong and World War II, would be unveiled outside a medical school in North China next month.
- Dr Kotnis, who hailed from Maharashtra came to China in 1938 as part of a five-member team of doctors sent by the Indian National Congress to help the Chinese during World War II.
- He joined the Communist Party of China in 1942 and died the same year at the age of 32.
Q28. किस देश ने एतिहासक चोरा चर्च (Kariye church) को मस्जिद में बदलने का फैसला किया है ?
Q28. Which country has decided to convert the historical Kariye church into a mosque?
- Turkey has decided to convert a church into a mosque.
- It was an ancient Orthodox church that became a mosque and then a popular Istanbul museum.
- The decision to transform the Kariye Museum into a mosque came just a month after a similarly controversial conversion for the UNESCO World Heritage-recognised Hagia Sophia.
- It was originally converted into the Kariye Mosque half a century after the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks.
- It became the Kariye Museum after the Second World War as Turkey pushed ahead with the creation of a more secular new republic out of the ashes of the Ottoman Empire.
Q29.जैविक खेती में किस देश को पहला स्थान मिला है?
Q29. Which country has ranked first in Organic Farming?
- The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has recently announced that India ranks first in Organic Farming.
- India ranks ninth in terms of areas under Organic Farming.
- Sikkim was the first state in the world to become completely organic. The other states that have similar targets include Uttarakhand and Tripura.
- India has launched two schemes to assist farmers in adopting organic farming.
- Also, the Agro-Export Policy, 2018 gave simultaneous thrusts to organic farming.
Q30.किस देश ने अरब जगत के पहले परमाणु रिएक्टर का संचालन शुरू किया है?
(a) सऊदी अरब
(c) संयुक्त अरब अमीरात
Q30. Which country has started the operation of the first-ever nuclear reactor of Arab World?
(a) Saudi Arabia
- Oil-rich Gulf state UAE has finally started its first-ever nuclear reactor “Barakah” at Abu Dhabi on the Gulf coast.
- Barakah means “blessing” in Arabic. Barakah was expected to start its operation in 2017.
- However, due to various safety issues, it kept on getting delayed.
- Developed in a joint venture with the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation and Korea Electric Power CorporationIn association with KEPCO, the nuclear reactor power plant has begun the process of nuclear fission in one of its four reactors.
Q31. किस देश ने Diaoyu islands (‘दियाओउ' द्वीपसमूह ) को अपने क्षेत्र के रूप में दावा किया है?
(c) दक्षिण कोरिया
Q31. Which country has claimed Diaoyu islands as its territory?
(c) South Korea
- China has recently claimed that the Diaoyu islands are Chinese territory and it has the right to conduct law enforcement activities in the area.
- The Chinese foreign ministry spokesperson Wang Wenbin denied the criticism of the U.S. of incursions of China.
- The islands are located in the East China sea and have also been claimed by Japan for several years.
- Japan calls the territory as Senkaku and China calls as Diaoyu.
Q32. किस देश ने एक नए कानून को मंजूरी दी है जो सोशल मीडिया कंटेंट को विनियमित करने के लिए अधिक शक्ति देता है?
Q32. Which country has approved a new legislation that gives more power to regulate social media content?
- The Parliament of Turkey has approved a new legislation that gives its authorities more power to regulate social media content.
- As per the law, major social media companies such as Facebook and Twitter will have to keep representative offices and also would store user data in Turkey.
- This law will combat cyber-crime and protect users and Authorities can remove cyber bullying posts.
Q33.किस देश के रक्षा मंत्री हामिद बाकायोको को प्रधान मंत्री के रूप में नियुक्त किया गया है?
(d) आइवरी कोस्ट
Q33. Which country’s Defence Minister Hamed Bakayoko has been appointed as its Prime Minister?
(d) Ivory Coast
- The Republic of Ivory Coast President Alassane Ouattara has appointed Defence Minister Hamed Bakayoko as Prime Minister after acting as an interim PM since the sudden death of Amadou Gon Coulibaly ( July 8, 2020)
- Hamed Bakayoko will also hold his position as defence Minister.
- Hamed Bakayoko became acting PM on May 2, 2020 due to the absence of Amadou Gon Coulibaly.
- Hamed Bakayoko since 2017 was in the defence portfolio after he served as an interior minister from 2011.
Q34. हिचमे मेचिची को किस देश का नया प्रधानमंत्री नियुक्त किया गया है?
Q34. Hichem Mechichi has been appointed as the new Prime Minister of which country?
- Tunisian President Kais Saied appointed Hichem Mechichi(46-year-old), Interior Minister as it’s new Prime minister.
- He has a month to form a government i.e., should be capable of winning a confidence vote in parliament by a simple majority.
- He succeeded Elyes Fakhfakh, who resigned over allegations of a conflict of interest.
Q35. डबल-स्टैक कंटेनरों के परिचालन हेतु दुनिया की पहली विद्युतीकृत रेल सुरंग किस देश में चालू की जाएगी?
Q35.World’s first electrified rail tunnel that fits double stack containers will be operationalized in which Country?
- World’s first electrified rail tunnel that fits double stack containers will be operationalized in India.
- It cuts through Aravali mountain on the Western Dedicated Freight Corridor (WDFC) near Sohna, Haryana.
- The project is implemented by the DFCCIL (Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India Limited).
- Geologically, this tunnel is safe and stable as it is caved through 2500 to 500 million-year-old Proterozoic Rocks mainly Quartzite, Schists and slates of Alwar/Azabgarh groups of Delhi Supergroup rocks which have the high bearing capacity
Q36.अंतर्राष्ट्रीय सौर गठबंधन (ISA) फ्रेमवर्क समझौते पर हस्ताक्षर करने वाला 87वाँ देश कौन सा है?
(c) कोस्टा रिका
Q36. Which country has become the 87th country to sign the International Solar Alliance(ISA) Framework Agreement?
(c) Costa Rica
- The Republic of Nicaragua has become the 87th country to sign the International Solar Alliance(ISA) Framework Agreement.
- H. E. Jaime Hermida Castillo, Permanent Representative to the UN of the Republic of Nicaragua, signed the Agreement at the Permanent Mission of India to the United Nations, New York.
Q37.किस देश ने दुनिया के सबसे बड़े कैमरा ट्रैप वन्यजीव सर्वेक्षण के लिए एक नया गिनीज वर्ल्ड रिकॉर्ड बनाया है?
Q37. Which country has set a new Guinness World Record for the world’s largest camera trap wildlife survey?
- The fourth cycle of the All India Tiger Estimation 2018, results of which were declared to the nation on Global Tiger Day last year by Prime Minister,Shri Narendra Modi has entered the Guinness World Record for being the world’s largest camera trap wildlife survey.
- The country now has an estimated 2967 tigers as per the latest census.
- With this number, India is home to nearly 75% of the global tiger population and has already fulfilled its resolve of doubling tiger numbers, made at St. Petersburg in 2010, much before the target year of 2022.
Q38.Global E-waste Monitor 2020 के अनुसार दुनिया में तीसरा सबसे बड़ा इलेक्ट्रॉनिक कचरा उत्पादक देश कौन सा है?
Q38. Which country is the third-largest electronic waste generator in the world as per the UN’s Global E-waste Monitor 2020?
- India is the third-largest electronic waste generator in the world after China and the USA and these three countries together contributed 38% of total 53.6 million tonnes (Mt) of e-waste, generated worldwide in 2019.
- Releasing these data, the UN’s Global E-waste Monitor 2020, has presented a worrying scenario where only 17.4% (9.3 Mt) of the total e-waste was collected and recycled globally.
Q39.किस देश ने वर्तमान राष्ट्रपति के शासन को वर्ष 2036 तक बढ़ाने के लिए एक संविधान संशोधन को मंजूरी दी है?
Q39. Which country has passed a referendum to extend the current President’s rule to 2036?
- Russian voters approved changes to the constitution that will allow President Vladimir Putin to hold power until 2036.
- For the first time in Russia, polls were kept open for a week to bolster turnout without increasing crowds casting ballots amid the coronavirus pandemic, a provision that Kremlin critics denounced as an extra tool to manipulate the outcome.
- A massive propaganda campaign and the opposition's failure to mount a coordinated challenge helped Putin get the result he wanted, but the plebiscite could end up eroding his position because of the unconventional methods used to boost participation and the dubious legal basis for the balloting.
Q40.भारत के बाहर विश्व का पहला योग विश्वविद्यालय किस देश ने स्थापित किया है?
Q40. Which country has set up World's first yoga university outside India?
- As part of the 6th International Yoga Day commemorations, the world's first yoga university outside India has been launched in Los Angeles, offering programmes that combine scientific principles and modern research approaches to the ancient Indian practice of yoga.
- The Vivekananda Yoga University (VaYU) was jointly launched by Minister of State for External Affairs V Muraleedharan during a virtual event held at the Consulate General of India in New York.
- Eminent Indian yoga guru Dr. H R Nagendra, Chancellor of Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (SVYASA) is the first Chairman of VaYU.
Q41.किस देश ने “हिजबुल्लाह” को आतंकवादी संगठन नामित किया है?
Q41. Which country has designated Hezbollah a terrorist organisation?
- Germany has banned Hezbollah activity on its soil and designated it a terrorist organisation.
- Germany had previously distinguished between Hezbollah's political arm and its military units, which have fought alongside President Bashar al-Assad's army in Syria.
- Israel and the United States had been pushing Germany to ban the organisation.
- Police conducted early morning raids in Germany to detain suspected members of the political group, which is based in Lebanon under the leadership of Hassan Nasrallah.
Q42.पीएम नरेंद्र मोदी ने मई 2020 में वर्चुअल नॉन-अलाइड मूवमेंट (NAM) समिट में हिस्सा लिया है। यह बैठक किस देश के राष्ट्रपति के नेतृत्व में आयोजित की गई?
Q42. PM Narendra Modi participated in the Virtual Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Summit in May 2020 . The meeting was organized under the leadership of which country’s President?
- Prime Minister Narendra Modi has participated in the Virtual Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Summit through Video Conferencing.
- The summit discussed and decided on the enhanced coordination of the member states in their fight against the coronavirus pandemic.
- Azerbaijan is the president of the grouping from 2019-2022 and the meet is being organised under the leadership of President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev.
- The title of the summit is "We stand together against COVID-19".
- NAM represents the biggest grouping of countries outside the United Nations comprising 120 developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America.
Q43. मुस्तफ़ा काधेमी ने किस देश के प्रधान मंत्री के रूप में शपथ ली है?
Q43. Mustafa Kadhimi has been sworn-in as the Prime Minister of which country?
- Iraq’s Parliament chose an American-backed former intelligence chief as the new prime minister, giving the country its first real government in more than five months as it confronts an array of potentially crippling crises.
- The prime minister, Mustafa al-Kadhimi, 53, who has a reputation for pragmatism, was also seen as an acceptable choice to Iran, the other major foreign power competing for influence in Iraq.
- Mr. al-Kadhimi is Iraq’s first real prime minister since the last one resigned in November in the face of persistent anti-government protests.
Q44.किस देश ने अपनी मुद्रा को बदलकर तोमान करने का फैसला किया है?
Q44.Which country has decided to change its currency to “Toman?
- Iranian lawmakers have voted to change Iran’s national currency from ‘rial’ to ‘toman’.
- The lawmakers approved an amendment to Iran’s Monetary and Banking Act of Iran to make the change.
- Under the amended law, the existing currency of Iran will continue to remain valid alongside "toman" for two years, during which the old coins and bills will be gradually collected to replace them with new ones.
- The new currency is equal to 10,000 rials, marking a reduction of four zeros.
Q45.अगस्त 2020 में किस देश ने दुनिया के सबसे बड़े समुद्री अभ्यास, द रिम ऑफ द पेसिफिक (RIMPAC) की मेजबानी की?
Q45. Which country hosted the world's largest maritime exercise, the Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) in August 2020?
- The U.S. Navy will host the world's largest maritime exercises in Hawaii again this year, but the drills will only be held at sea because of the coronavirus.
- The Navy has held the Rim of the Pacific exercises(RIMPAC) in Hawaii every two years since the early 1970s.
- RIMPAC 2020 would not include social events on shore.
- Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam will host a "minimal footprint" of staff for logistics and support functions.
Q46. जर्मन पर जीत की 75 वीं वर्षगांठ को चिह्नित करने के लिए रूसी राष्ट्रपति ने स्मारक युद्ध पदक से किसे सम्मानित किया है?
(a) मून जे-इन
(b) किम जोंग-उन
(c) चुंग सय-कयून
(d) शिंजो अबे
Q46. Who has been awarded a commemorative war medal by the Russian President to mark the 75th anniversary of the victory over Nazi German?
(a) Moon Jae-in
(b) Kim Jong-un
(c) Chung Sye-kyun
(d) Shinzō Abe
- Russian President Vladimir Putin has awarded North Korean Leader Kim Jong-un a commemorative war medal marking the 75th anniversary of the victory over Nazi German
- The medal was awarded to the North Korean leader for his role in preserving the memory of Soviet soldiers who died on North Korean territory.
Q47.संयुक्त राष्ट्र पर्यावरण कार्यक्रम ने अभिनेत्री दीया मिर्जा के कार्यकाल को भारत के सद्भावना राजदूत के रूप में कब तक बढ़ा दिया गया है।
Q47. UN Environment Programme has extended the term of actress Dia Mirza as the Goodwill ambassador of India till _______.
- The United Nations Environment Programme extended the term of actress Dia Mirza as the Goodwill Ambassador of India till 2022.
- The actress is also a United Nations Sustainable Development Goal Advocate.
- A Goodwill Ambassador in general is a person who supports global issues or specific cause.
- UNICEF has the largest number of ambassadors which is 300.
- Goodwill Ambassadors on the request of the United Nations will raise funds, engage in public advocacy (like creating awareness, etc.). Their term of service is for 2 years.
Q48.किस भारतीय-अमेरिकी को IBRD के अमेरिकी वैकल्पिक कार्यकारी निदेशक के रूप में नामित किया गया है?
(a) मनीषा सिंह
(b)अशोक माइकल पिंटो
(c) अरुणा सुब्रमण्यन
(d) रो खन्ना
Q48. Which Indian-American has been nominated as US Alternate Executive Director of IBRD?
(a) Manisha Singh
(b) Ashok Michael Pinto
(c) Aruna Subramanian
(d) Ro Khanna
- US President Donald Trump has nominated Indian-American Ashok Michael Pinto as a representative to the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
- Pinto was nominated as US Alternate Executive Director of IBRD for a term of two years.
- If confirmed by the Senate, Pinto would replace Erik Bethel, who has resigned from the post.
- Pinto currently serves as Counselor to the Under Secretary for International Affairs at the United States Department of the Treasury.
- Pinto was Special Assistant and Associate Counsel to President George W Bush during private practice at two international law firms.
Q49.मोकेट्सी मोहोरो ने किस देश के नए प्रधानमंत्री के रूप में शपथ ली है?
Q49. Moeketsi Majoro has been sworn in as new Prime Minister of which country?
- Moeketsi Majoro has been sworn in as Lesotho’s new prime minister after Thomas Motsoahae Thabane.
- Majoro, who had previously served as the finance minister of the country, took the oath at the king’s palace in front of dignitaries.
- Thabane's decision to step down came amid mounting pressure over a case in which he and his current wife are suspected of involvement in the 2017 murder of his estranged wife.
- Thabane's own All Basotho Convention (ABC) party, opposition figures and South African mediators had pressured him to quit
Q50.किस संगठन के महानिदेशक रॉबर्टो अज़वेदो; ने अगस्त 2020 में इस्तीफा दिया था?
Q50. Roberto Azevêdo; the director general of which organization resigned in August 2020?
- The World Trade Organization (WTO) has announced that its director general Roberto Azevêdo has decided to step down effective August 31, a year earlier than planned.
- Azevedo’s second four-year term was scheduled to end in September 2021.
- His sudden exit has come at a time when the world is grappling with the Covid-19 pandemic and global trade is forecast to plummet to historic lows.
- Azevêdo is the sixth Director-General of the WTO and first took charge on September 1, 2013 for a four-year term.
- His second four-year term began on September 1, 2017.
Q51. इज़राइल में बेंजामिन नेतन्याहू ने मई 2020 में पीएम पद की शपथ ली है| इस पद पर यह उनका ______ कार्यकाल है|
Q51. Benjamin Netanyahu took the oath of prime minister of Israel in May 2020. It is his _________ term?
- Israel’s Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has secured a historic fifth term to form his government, after a controversial power-sharing deal with rival-turned-partner Benny Gantz.
- On 7 May 2020, President Reuven Rivlin officially granted Netanyahu, two-week mandate to form his government, following which, Netanyahu announced the formation of his coalition government on 17 May 2020.
Q52.किस देश की संसद ने ऐतिहासिक भूमि सुधार बिल को अपनाया है?
Q52. Which country’s parliament adopted the historic land reform bill?
- Ukraine's parliament has lifted a long-standing ban on the sale of farmland, a crucial and controversial piece of legislation needed to unlock support from the International Monetary Fund.
- The president has to sign off on the bill for it to become law. Zelensky had urged MPs to lift the ban, warning that the ex-Soviet country could default due to the economic shocks of the coronavirus pandemic.
- The bill has sparked huge controversy and multiple protests in one of Europe's poorest countries.
Q53. भारत और किस देश के बीच राजनयिक संबंधों की स्थापना की 70 वीं वर्षगांठ 1 अप्रैल 2020 को चिह्नित की गई?
Q53. The 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties between India and which country was marked on April 1, 2020?
- On April 1, 1950, India became the first non-Communist country in Asia to establish diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China (PRC).
- This year marks the 70th anniversary of the bilateral diplomatic ties between China and India.
- The two countries together finalised 70 events to celebrate the event in line with the understanding reached by Prime Minister Narendra
- Modi and Chinese President Xi Jinping during their 2nd Informal Summit at Mamallapuram on October 11-12 last year.
- Due to the Coronavirus Pandemic, all the events have been cancelled.
Q54.COVID-19 के कारण यूनेस्को की विश्व धरोहर समिति का 44 वां सत्र स्थगित कर दिया गया है; यह किस देश में आयोजित किया जाना था?
Q54. The 44th session of the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO has been postponed due to COVID-19; was scheduled to be held in which country?
- China's Ministry of Education has announced that the 44th session of the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO, initially scheduled from 29th of June to 9th of July, in Fuzhou of eastern China's Fujian Province, has been postponed to a later date due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
- The decision was made unanimously by the committee's bureau members and consultations are currently underway to determine the exact dates of the session.
- 43rd Session- Baku, Azerbaijan
- The World Heritage Committee inscribed 29 new sites on UNESCO's World Heritage in the 43th session.
Q55.किस देश ने COVID-19 महामारी के दौरान मैटरहॉर्न पर्वत पर तिरंगा प्रोजेक्ट करके भारत के साथ एकजुटता व्यक्त की है?
Q55. Which country has expressed solidarity with India by projecting the tricolour on the Matterhorn mountain during the COVID-19 pandemic?
- Switzerland has expressed solidarity with India in its fight against the coronavirus pandemic by projecting the tricolour on the famous Matterhorn mountain in the Swiss Alps to give "hope and strength" to all Indians.
- Swiss light artist Gerry Hofstetter has been lighting up the 4,478-meter pyramidal peak straddling between Switzerland and Italy with spectacular displays of flags of different countries and messages of hope as part of a nightly series supporting the nations combating the deadly COVID-19 pandemic.
- The Indian flag on the Matterhorn is intended to express our solidarity and give hope and strength to all Indians
- The daily projections have been illuminating the mountain since the end of March.
Q56.अप्रैल 2020 में किस देश ने अपना पहला सैन्य उपग्रह सफलतापूर्वक लॉन्च किया है?
Q56. Which country has successfully launched its first military satellite in April ,2020?
Iran has successfully launched the country's first military reconnaissance satellite after months of failures, a programme the United States alleges is a cover for missile development.
The first satellite of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been successfully launched into orbit by the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps [IRGC].
The two-stage satellite launch took off from Iran's Central Desert,
The launch comes amid tensions between Tehran and Washington over its collapsing nuclear deal.
Q57.किस देश ने दुनिया के सबसे बड़े रेडियो टेलीस्कोप के संचालन की शुरुआत की है?
Q57. Which country has begun the operations of the world's largest radio telescope?
- China has officially opened operations of the world’s largest radio telescope, which it will use for space research and help in the hunt for extraterrestrial life.
- The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Telescope, or FAST, is the size of 30 football fields and has been hewed out of a mountain in the southwestern province of Guizhou. It is also known by the name “Sky Eye” in China.
- This telescope is 2.5 times sensitive to Puerto Rico’s Arecibo Observatory.
- The Observatory in Puerto Rico has the world’s second-largest single-radio radio telescope installed.
- Its purpose is to search for life in distant space and also to find aliens.
Q58.मारिजुआना की खेती को वैध बनाने वाला पहला अरब देश कौन सा है?
Q58. Which has become the first Arab country to legalize cannabis farming?
- Lebanon became the 1st Arab nation to legalise cannabis (also known as marijuana) farming for medicinal & industrial use with the aim to boost the exports & to beat the economic crisis created by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.
- Lebanon faces the worst economic crisis due to lockdown since the 1975-1990 civil war.
Q59.किस देश ने नाबालिगों द्वारा किए गए अपराधों के लिए मौत की सजा को समाप्त करने का आदेश दिया है?
(c) सऊदी अरब
Q59. Which country has ordered an end to the death penalty for crimes committed by minors?
(c) Saudi Arabia
- Saudi Arabia’s King Salman has ordered an end to the death penalty for crimes committed by minors.
- The decision comes on the heels of another ordering judges to end the practice of flogging, replacing it with jail time, fines or community service and bringing one of the kingdom's most controversial forms of public punishment to a close.
Q60.मोहिउद्दीन यासीन किस देश के नए प्रधानमंत्री बने हैं?
Q60. Muhyiddin Yassin has become the new Prime Minister of which country?
- Malaysia’s King Sultan Abdullah Sultan Ahmad Shah has appointed Muhyiddin Yassin as the new Prime Minister, trumping Mahathir Mohamad’s bid to return to power following his resignation as Prime Minister.
- The appointment of Muhyiddin, who heads Mahathir’s Bersatu party, will ironically bring back to power the United Malays National Organization, which was ousted by Mahathir’s ruling alliance in 2018 elections.
- Mahathir quit this week and struck a new deal to work with his former ruling alliance led by rival Anwar Ibrahim to thwart Muhyiddin’s plan but failed.
- But the palace announced that King Sultan Abdullah Sultan Ahmad Shah believed that Muhyiddin has the support of a majority of lawmakers.
Q61.भारत ने मार्च 2020 में किस देश से 40 मिलियन डॉलर का रक्षा सौदा हासिल किया है?
Q61. India bagged a $40 million defence deal in March 2020, from which country?
India won a $40 million defence deal to supply 4 indigenously-built weapons locating radars to Armenia in Europe. India won the deal by overtaking Russia and Poland.
The move by GoI is to boost the defence sector of the country. The deal is a major achievement for the ‘Make in India’ programme in the defence sector.
The SWATHI weapon will help in locating radars.
The weapon is being developed by DRDO’s Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE)
Q62.डेनिस श्मीगल किस देश के नए प्रधानमंत्री बन गए हैं?
Q62. Denys Shmygal has become the new Prime Minister of which country?
- Ukrainian parliament approved the resignation of former Prime Minister Oleksiy Honcharuk .
- President Volodymyr Zelensky has proposed Deputy Prime Minister Denys Shmygal as new Prime Minister.
- Ukraine's parliament has approved Denys Shmygal as the new prime minister after his predecessor resigned, caught out by a leaked recording of him criticising the president.
- Oleksiy Honcharuk spent only six months on the job.
- Oleksiy Honcharuk had offered to resign, in his second attempt to quit after a leaked recording emerged in January of him questioning President Volodymyr Zelensky’s grasp of economics.
Q63.‘Freedom in the World 2020” रिपोर्ट में किस देश ने मुक्त लोकतांत्रिक देश के रूप में सूची में शीर्ष स्थान प्राप्त किया है?
Q63. Which country has topped the list as the free democratic country in the ‘Freedom in the World 2020” report?
- According to the ‘Freedom in the World 2020” report, which analyzes democratic values and people’s freedom in 195 countries & 15 territories, India has ranked 83rd in the report along with Timor-Leste and Senegal in ‘Free’ category.
- While, Finland topped the list as the free democratic country.
- India’s score fell by 4 points from 75 to 71 in the survey results (34 out of 40 points in the political rights category & 37 out of 60 in the civil liberties category).This is the biggest drop in the 25 largest democracies in the world.
Q64.दुनिया की अंतिम मादा सफेद जिराफ को किस देश में शिकारियों द्वारा मार दिया गया है?
Q64. World’s last female white giraffe has been killed by poachers of which country?
- Poachers have killed two extremely rare white giraffes in Kenya, leaving just one such animal in the world.
- The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) had classified giraffes as vulnerable in the Red List in December 2016.
- They are listed under Appendix II of the CITES.
- The two giraffes to be killed were a mother and her seven-month-old calf. The mother’s other male calf is the one that survived.
- The white appearance of the giraffe is due to leucism, a genetic condition that causes skin cells to have no pigmentation.
Q65.कौन सा द्वीप देश "डार्क स्काई प्लेस" के रूप में मान्यता प्राप्त दुनिया का पहला देश बन गया है?
Q65.Which island country has become the world’s first country recognized as a “Dark Sky Place”?
- The island of Niue has become the world’s first whole country recognised as a ‘Dark Sky Place.
- The International Dark-Sky Association’s (IDA) has approved the island’s application for the protection of its sky, land and sea.
- The title of ‘Dark Sky nation’ recognises an area with exceptional quality of starry nights and a commitment to protecting the environment.
- Niue is home to around 1,600 inhabitants and is one of the world’s smallest independent nations.
Q66.संयुक्त राष्ट्र की विश्व खुशहाली रिपोर्ट में दुनिया का सबसे खुशहाल देश कौन सा है?
Q66. Which country is the World’s happiest nation in the UN's World Happiness Report?
- Finland is the world's happiest nation in the UN's World Happiness Report of 156 countries.
- Finland's residents enjoy a high quality of life, security and public services, with rates of inequality and poverty among the lowest of all OECD countries.
- India ranked 144.
- Following Finland, Denmark and Switzerland ranked second and third positions respectively.
Q67.इगोर माटोविक ने किस देश के नए प्रधानमंत्री के रूप में शपथ ली है?
Q67. Igor Matovic has sworn-in as the new Prime Minister of which country?
(d) New Zealand
- Slovak President Zuzana Caputova administered the oath of office to new Prime Minister Igor Matovic amid economic turmoil due to the spread of the coronavirus.
- Matovic is taking the leadership role as the country heads into recession after measures to control the virus have shuttered shops and cafes for more than a week.
- Zuzana Caputova is the first female president of Slovakia.
Q68. कौन सा देश राष्ट्रमंडल में फिर से शामिल हो गया है और उसका 54 वां सदस्य बना है?
Q68. Which country has rejoined the Commonwealth and become its 54th member?
(c) the Maldives
- The Maldives has once again become a member of the Commonwealth.
- President Ibrahim Mohammed Solih has reported that the Commonwealth Secretary-General, Petrika Scotland has confirmed this and Maldives has become the 54th member country of the Commonwealth.
- President Solih’s cabinet passed a proposal to rejoin the Commonwealth soon after coming to power in 2018.
Q69. किस देश ने फरवरी 2020 में बड़े पैमाने पर टिड्डियों के हमले के कारण राष्ट्रीय आपात काल घोषित किया है?
(d) दोनों (a) और (c)
Q69. Which country declared a National Emergency due to massive locusts attack in Feb 2020?
(d) Both (a) and (c)
- Pakistan, which is facing its worst locust attack in decades, has declared a national emergency to tackle the insects destroying crops on a large scale in Punjab province, the country's main region for agricultural production.
- The decision was taken at a meeting convened by Prime Minister Imran Khan.
- The meeting, attended by federal ministers and senior officials of the four provinces, also approved a National Action Plan (NAP) that requires a sum of ₹7.3 billion to overcome the crisis.
- Somalia has also declared a national emergency as large swarms of locusts spread across East Africa.
Q70. किस देश ने दुनिया का सबसे छोटा सोने का सिक्का जारी किया है?
Q70. Which country released the world’s smallest gold coin?
- Switzerland has minted a gold coin so small that the 2.96-millimeter (0.12-inches) gold coin is the smallest in the world.
- It weighs 0.063 grams (1/500th of an ounce) and has a nominal value of 1/4 Swiss francs (USD 0.26).
- It displays Albert Einstein sticking out his tongue at you.
- It will be sold for 199 francs with a special magnifying glass so owners can see the famous physicist on its face.
Q71.फरवरी 2020 में किस देश ने भारतीय हिंदू श्रद्धालुओं को श्री कटास राज मंदिरों के दर्शन के लिए वीजा जारी किया है?
Q71. Which country issued visas to Indian hindu pilgrims to visit Shree Katas Raj temples in Feb, 2020?
The Pakistan High Commission has issued visas to a group of Hindu pilgrims to visit Shree Katas Raj temples in Punjab province's Chakwal district.
The group is planning to visit Shree Katas Raj temples, also known as Qila Katas or complex of Katas temples, from February 19 to 25
Katas Raj temples surround a pond which is considered sacred by the Hindus, it said.
A group of 88 Indian Hindu devotees had also visited Shree Katas Raj temples last year from December 13 to 19.
This is covered under the Pakistan-India Protocol on Visits to Religious Shrines, 1974.
Q72.प्रवाल शैल-श्रेणियों की रक्षा के लिए कौन सा देश सनस्क्रीन पर प्रतिबंध लगाने वाला पहला देश बन गया है?
Q72. Which country has become the first country to ban sunscreen to protect coral reefs?
- The Pacific Island, Palau has become the first country to ban sun cream that is harmful to corals.
- The country has banned common ingredients used in cosmetics including oxybenzone.
- The order of the ban was passed in 2018. However, it comes into effect from January 1, 2020.
Q73.ज़ोरान मिलानोविच किस देश के राष्ट्रपति चुने गए हैं?
Q73. Zoran Milanovic has won the presidential elections of which country?
Zoran Milanovic has won Croatia’s presidential Elections.
Zoran Milanovic is Croatia’s center-leftist former Prime Minister.
He defeated center-right incumbent Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovic who was the first female president of Croatia.
Milanovic belongs to the Social Democratic Party(SDP) won 52.7% vote while Grabar-kitarovic of the ruling Croatian Democratic Union won 47.3%.
Q74.पेड्रो सांचेज ने किस देश के प्रधानमंत्री के रूप में शपथ ली है?
Q74. Pedro Sanchez has sworn-in as the Prime Minister of which country?
- Spain's Parliament confirmed Socialist leader Pedro Sanchez as Prime Minister of the country on 7 January 2020.
- He has narrowly won a confidence vote in parliament, enabling him to govern in coalition with far-left Podemos.
- The dramatic open vote, by a simple majority of MPs, went 167 to 165 in his favour. He will now form a minority government.
- It will be Spain's first coalition government since democracy was restored in 1978, after the Franco dictatorship.